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Sharon
Timeline Photos
U.S. Army Command Sgt. Maj. Orlando Santiago, comm
3 days ago
Carla
Timeline Photos
U.S. Army Command Sgt. Maj. Orlando Santiago, comm
3 days ago
Chris
Timeline Photos
U.S. Army Command Sgt. Maj. Orlando Santiago, comm
3 days ago
Maria
Timeline Photos
U.S. Army Command Sgt. Maj. Orlando Santiago, comm
3 days ago
Marialorrain
Timeline Photos
U.S. Army Command Sgt. Maj. Orlando Santiago, comm
3 days ago
Shamekia
Timeline Photos
Hinesville SFC Henry L. Dick (US Army, Ret.), 58,
5 days ago
David
Timeline Photos
PHOTO OF THE DAY: U.S. Army 1st Lt. Michael D. Kay
5 days ago
John AH the SANDBOX such fond memories! Aram Topjian Stephen Pointer Tracey A. Johnson Pete Gomez Wayne Rauh Elgin Moore
Operations Group, National Training Center, DA Rotation 14-09, RSOI 1-5 Video National Training Center/Fort Irwin Operations Group, National Training Center 3rd Infantry Division 4th Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM Read more ... ) XVIII Airborne Corps U.S. Army U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment-Blackhorse Fort Stewart, Georgia 1st Combat Camera Squadron 1st Armor Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division
5 days ago
John
The 75th Ranger Regiment
1st Ranger Battalion celebrates 40th Anniversary By: 75th Ranger Regiment Public Affairs Office The year was 1973, the outbreak of the Middle East War was a watershed for U.S. foreign policy toward the Middle East. The Department of the Army had co Read more ... ncern and needed a light mobile force that could quickly move to any troubled spot in the world. In the fall of 1973, Gen. Creighton Abrams, Army Chief of Staff, formulated the idea of reforming the first battalion-sized Ranger units since World War II. In January 1974, he sent a message to the field directing the formation of a Ranger battalion. Abrams would select the missions and picked the first officers. He felt a tough, disciplined and elite Ranger unit would set a standard for the rest of the United States Army and that, as Rangers “graduated” from Ranger units to Regular Army units, their influence would improve the entire Army. One of those initial Rangers was then-Staff Sgt. Steve Murphy, who served in Charlie Company Rangers back in Vietnam. Murphy had transferred to a couple units after Vietnam, before joining the 1st Ranger Battalion. “You’ll always have good people that gravitate towards challenges and have a higher set of goals,” said Murphy on why he joined the Ranger Battalion. “And that’s why people came to the Ranger Battalion. We had an awful lot of talent, the best of the officers, senior NCOs, and difficult missions to carry out.” This group of Rangers would live by and continue to live by Abrams’ comments, which later would be known as “Abrams Charters”: “The Ranger Battalion is to be an elite, light and most proficient infantry battalion in the world; a battalion that can do things with it’s hand an weapons better than anyone. The battalion will not contain any hoodlums or brigands and that if the battalion is formed of such persons it will be disbanded. Wherever the battalion goes it will be apparent that it is the best.” On January 25, 1974, Headquarters, U.S. Army Forces Command, published General Orders 127, directing the activation of the 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, with an effective date of January 31, 1974. The selection process began shortly thereafter and personnel assembled at Fort Benning, Ga., to undergo the cadre training from March through June 1974. On July 1, 1974, the 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, parachuted into Fort Stewart, Ga. Also activated later that year was the 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry. These modern Ranger battalions were first called upon in 1980. Elements of the 1st Battalion, participated in the Iranian hostage rescue attempt. As Murphy recalled, “this was the first time that Rangers were carrying out special operations missions.” The groundwork for Special Operations capability of today was laid during training and preparation for this operation. Rangers and other Special Operations Forces from throughout the Department of Defense developed tactics, techniques, and equipment from scratch, as no doctrine existed anywhere in the world. The combat effectiveness of the Ranger Battalions was again proven during the United States’ invasion of Grenada on Oct. 25, 1983. The mission of the Rangers was to protect the lives of American citizens and restore democracy to the island. What would be known as “Operation Urgent Fury”, 1st and 2nd Ranger Battalions conducted a daring low-level parachute assault at 500 feet, to seize the airfield at Point Salinas, rescue American citizens at the True Blue Medical Campus, and conducted air assault operations to eliminate pockets of resistance. As a result of the demonstrated effectiveness of the Ranger battalions, the Department of the Army announced in 1984 that it was increasing the size of the active-duty Ranger force to its highest level in 40 years, by activating the 3rd Battalion, 75th Infantry (Ranger), and Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 75th Infantry (Ranger), on Oct. 3, 1984. On December 20, 1989, the Ranger Regiment was called on again for OPERATION JUST CAUSE, in which U.S. forces restored democracy to Panama. The 1st Ranger Battalion, reinforced by Company C, 3rd Battalion, and a Regimental command and control team, conducted an early morning parachute assault onto Omar Torrijos International Airport and Tocumen Military Airfield, to neutralize the Panamanian Defense Forces’ 2nd Rifle Company, the entire Panamanian Air Force and secure the airfields for the arrival of the 82nd Airborne Division. Following the successful completion of the Regiment’s assault, Rangers conducted follow-on operations in support of Joint Task Force – South. The Rangers captured 1,014 Enemy Prisoners of War, and more than 18,000 arms of various types. The Rangers sustained five killed in action and 42 wounded. Again, on Feb. 12, 1991, elements from the 1st Ranger Battalion deployed to Saudi Arabia in support of OPERATION DESERT STORM. The Ranger conducted raids and provided a quick reaction force in cooperation with Allied forces. After our nation was viciously attacked on September 11, 2001, the Rangers were called upon to lead the way in the Global War on Terror. A battalion from the 75th Ranger Regiment has consecutively been deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan since Oct. 19, 2001. The 1st Ranger Battalion and the 75th Ranger Regiment continues to evolve with the War on Terror in order to increase combat power and maintain the highest level of readiness. Rangers fight hard, every day and night, in denied areas, against determined enemies, living the Ranger Creed. While Murphy described the equipment, tactics and techniques from his time with the Rangers, the make-up has not. “I think these guys now are a step ahead when they arrive to their Ranger Battalion then the guys we had in ’74,” he said. “You’re always going to have that percentage of people who want to be the best. They’re going to go to the more challenging units that require a greater sacrifice.” Rangers Lead the Way!
5 days ago
Christian The two-week Army Reserve event!
Timeline Photos
U.S. Army James J. Murphy of Charlotte, N.C., a mo
5 days ago
Hubert
The 75th Ranger Regiment
1st Ranger Battalion celebrates 40th Anniversary By: 75th Ranger Regiment Public Affairs Office The year was 1973, the outbreak of the Middle East War was a watershed for U.S. foreign policy toward the Middle East. The Department of the Army had co Read more ... ncern and needed a light mobile force that could quickly move to any troubled spot in the world. In the fall of 1973, Gen. Creighton Abrams, Army Chief of Staff, formulated the idea of reforming the first battalion-sized Ranger units since World War II. In January 1974, he sent a message to the field directing the formation of a Ranger battalion. Abrams would select the missions and picked the first officers. He felt a tough, disciplined and elite Ranger unit would set a standard for the rest of the United States Army and that, as Rangers “graduated” from Ranger units to Regular Army units, their influence would improve the entire Army. One of those initial Rangers was then-Staff Sgt. Steve Murphy, who served in Charlie Company Rangers back in Vietnam. Murphy had transferred to a couple units after Vietnam, before joining the 1st Ranger Battalion. “You’ll always have good people that gravitate towards challenges and have a higher set of goals,” said Murphy on why he joined the Ranger Battalion. “And that’s why people came to the Ranger Battalion. We had an awful lot of talent, the best of the officers, senior NCOs, and difficult missions to carry out.” This group of Rangers would live by and continue to live by Abrams’ comments, which later would be known as “Abrams Charters”: “The Ranger Battalion is to be an elite, light and most proficient infantry battalion in the world; a battalion that can do things with it’s hand an weapons better than anyone. The battalion will not contain any hoodlums or brigands and that if the battalion is formed of such persons it will be disbanded. Wherever the battalion goes it will be apparent that it is the best.” On January 25, 1974, Headquarters, U.S. Army Forces Command, published General Orders 127, directing the activation of the 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, with an effective date of January 31, 1974. The selection process began shortly thereafter and personnel assembled at Fort Benning, Ga., to undergo the cadre training from March through June 1974. On July 1, 1974, the 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, parachuted into Fort Stewart, Ga. Also activated later that year was the 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry. These modern Ranger battalions were first called upon in 1980. Elements of the 1st Battalion, participated in the Iranian hostage rescue attempt. As Murphy recalled, “this was the first time that Rangers were carrying out special operations missions.” The groundwork for Special Operations capability of today was laid during training and preparation for this operation. Rangers and other Special Operations Forces from throughout the Department of Defense developed tactics, techniques, and equipment from scratch, as no doctrine existed anywhere in the world. The combat effectiveness of the Ranger Battalions was again proven during the United States’ invasion of Grenada on Oct. 25, 1983. The mission of the Rangers was to protect the lives of American citizens and restore democracy to the island. What would be known as “Operation Urgent Fury”, 1st and 2nd Ranger Battalions conducted a daring low-level parachute assault at 500 feet, to seize the airfield at Point Salinas, rescue American citizens at the True Blue Medical Campus, and conducted air assault operations to eliminate pockets of resistance. As a result of the demonstrated effectiveness of the Ranger battalions, the Department of the Army announced in 1984 that it was increasing the size of the active-duty Ranger force to its highest level in 40 years, by activating the 3rd Battalion, 75th Infantry (Ranger), and Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 75th Infantry (Ranger), on Oct. 3, 1984. On December 20, 1989, the Ranger Regiment was called on again for OPERATION JUST CAUSE, in which U.S. forces restored democracy to Panama. The 1st Ranger Battalion, reinforced by Company C, 3rd Battalion, and a Regimental command and control team, conducted an early morning parachute assault onto Omar Torrijos International Airport and Tocumen Military Airfield, to neutralize the Panamanian Defense Forces’ 2nd Rifle Company, the entire Panamanian Air Force and secure the airfields for the arrival of the 82nd Airborne Division. Following the successful completion of the Regiment’s assault, Rangers conducted follow-on operations in support of Joint Task Force – South. The Rangers captured 1,014 Enemy Prisoners of War, and more than 18,000 arms of various types. The Rangers sustained five killed in action and 42 wounded. Again, on Feb. 12, 1991, elements from the 1st Ranger Battalion deployed to Saudi Arabia in support of OPERATION DESERT STORM. The Ranger conducted raids and provided a quick reaction force in cooperation with Allied forces. After our nation was viciously attacked on September 11, 2001, the Rangers were called upon to lead the way in the Global War on Terror. A battalion from the 75th Ranger Regiment has consecutively been deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan since Oct. 19, 2001. The 1st Ranger Battalion and the 75th Ranger Regiment continues to evolve with the War on Terror in order to increase combat power and maintain the highest level of readiness. Rangers fight hard, every day and night, in denied areas, against determined enemies, living the Ranger Creed. While Murphy described the equipment, tactics and techniques from his time with the Rangers, the make-up has not. “I think these guys now are a step ahead when they arrive to their Ranger Battalion then the guys we had in ’74,” he said. “You’re always going to have that percentage of people who want to be the best. They’re going to go to the more challenging units that require a greater sacrifice.” Rangers Lead the Way!
5 days ago
Gunslinger Happy Birthday 1st Bn, AKA: THE Bn, the 1st Imperial Ranger Bn, 1st Ranger SQDN, 1st batt best batt. 40 years young and the continuance of a legacy of excellence. #beachboys #legshavers #shootyouinyourkitchenandfinishyourdinner
The 75th Ranger Regiment
1st Ranger Battalion celebrates 40th Anniversary By: 75th Ranger Regiment Public Affairs Office The year was 1973, the outbreak of the Middle East War was a watershed for U.S. foreign policy toward the Middle East. The Department of the Army had co Read more ... ncern and needed a light mobile force that could quickly move to any troubled spot in the world. In the fall of 1973, Gen. Creighton Abrams, Army Chief of Staff, formulated the idea of reforming the first battalion-sized Ranger units since World War II. In January 1974, he sent a message to the field directing the formation of a Ranger battalion. Abrams would select the missions and picked the first officers. He felt a tough, disciplined and elite Ranger unit would set a standard for the rest of the United States Army and that, as Rangers “graduated” from Ranger units to Regular Army units, their influence would improve the entire Army. One of those initial Rangers was then-Staff Sgt. Steve Murphy, who served in Charlie Company Rangers back in Vietnam. Murphy had transferred to a couple units after Vietnam, before joining the 1st Ranger Battalion. “You’ll always have good people that gravitate towards challenges and have a higher set of goals,” said Murphy on why he joined the Ranger Battalion. “And that’s why people came to the Ranger Battalion. We had an awful lot of talent, the best of the officers, senior NCOs, and difficult missions to carry out.” This group of Rangers would live by and continue to live by Abrams’ comments, which later would be known as “Abrams Charters”: “The Ranger Battalion is to be an elite, light and most proficient infantry battalion in the world; a battalion that can do things with it’s hand an weapons better than anyone. The battalion will not contain any hoodlums or brigands and that if the battalion is formed of such persons it will be disbanded. Wherever the battalion goes it will be apparent that it is the best.” On January 25, 1974, Headquarters, U.S. Army Forces Command, published General Orders 127, directing the activation of the 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, with an effective date of January 31, 1974. The selection process began shortly thereafter and personnel assembled at Fort Benning, Ga., to undergo the cadre training from March through June 1974. On July 1, 1974, the 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, parachuted into Fort Stewart, Ga. Also activated later that year was the 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry. These modern Ranger battalions were first called upon in 1980. Elements of the 1st Battalion, participated in the Iranian hostage rescue attempt. As Murphy recalled, “this was the first time that Rangers were carrying out special operations missions.” The groundwork for Special Operations capability of today was laid during training and preparation for this operation. Rangers and other Special Operations Forces from throughout the Department of Defense developed tactics, techniques, and equipment from scratch, as no doctrine existed anywhere in the world. The combat effectiveness of the Ranger Battalions was again proven during the United States’ invasion of Grenada on Oct. 25, 1983. The mission of the Rangers was to protect the lives of American citizens and restore democracy to the island. What would be known as “Operation Urgent Fury”, 1st and 2nd Ranger Battalions conducted a daring low-level parachute assault at 500 feet, to seize the airfield at Point Salinas, rescue American citizens at the True Blue Medical Campus, and conducted air assault operations to eliminate pockets of resistance. As a result of the demonstrated effectiveness of the Ranger battalions, the Department of the Army announced in 1984 that it was increasing the size of the active-duty Ranger force to its highest level in 40 years, by activating the 3rd Battalion, 75th Infantry (Ranger), and Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 75th Infantry (Ranger), on Oct. 3, 1984. On December 20, 1989, the Ranger Regiment was called on again for OPERATION JUST CAUSE, in which U.S. forces restored democracy to Panama. The 1st Ranger Battalion, reinforced by Company C, 3rd Battalion, and a Regimental command and control team, conducted an early morning parachute assault onto Omar Torrijos International Airport and Tocumen Military Airfield, to neutralize the Panamanian Defense Forces’ 2nd Rifle Company, the entire Panamanian Air Force and secure the airfields for the arrival of the 82nd Airborne Division. Following the successful completion of the Regiment’s assault, Rangers conducted follow-on operations in support of Joint Task Force – South. The Rangers captured 1,014 Enemy Prisoners of War, and more than 18,000 arms of various types. The Rangers sustained five killed in action and 42 wounded. Again, on Feb. 12, 1991, elements from the 1st Ranger Battalion deployed to Saudi Arabia in support of OPERATION DESERT STORM. The Ranger conducted raids and provided a quick reaction force in cooperation with Allied forces. After our nation was viciously attacked on September 11, 2001, the Rangers were called upon to lead the way in the Global War on Terror. A battalion from the 75th Ranger Regiment has consecutively been deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan since Oct. 19, 2001. The 1st Ranger Battalion and the 75th Ranger Regiment continues to evolve with the War on Terror in order to increase combat power and maintain the highest level of readiness. Rangers fight hard, every day and night, in denied areas, against determined enemies, living the Ranger Creed. While Murphy described the equipment, tactics and techniques from his time with the Rangers, the make-up has not. “I think these guys now are a step ahead when they arrive to their Ranger Battalion then the guys we had in ’74,” he said. “You’re always going to have that percentage of people who want to be the best. They’re going to go to the more challenging units that require a greater sacrifice.” Rangers Lead the Way!
5 days ago
George
The 75th Ranger Regiment
1st Ranger Battalion celebrates 40th Anniversary By: 75th Ranger Regiment Public Affairs Office The year was 1973, the outbreak of the Middle East War was a watershed for U.S. foreign policy toward the Middle East. The Department of the Army had co Read more ... ncern and needed a light mobile force that could quickly move to any troubled spot in the world. In the fall of 1973, Gen. Creighton Abrams, Army Chief of Staff, formulated the idea of reforming the first battalion-sized Ranger units since World War II. In January 1974, he sent a message to the field directing the formation of a Ranger battalion. Abrams would select the missions and picked the first officers. He felt a tough, disciplined and elite Ranger unit would set a standard for the rest of the United States Army and that, as Rangers “graduated” from Ranger units to Regular Army units, their influence would improve the entire Army. One of those initial Rangers was then-Staff Sgt. Steve Murphy, who served in Charlie Company Rangers back in Vietnam. Murphy had transferred to a couple units after Vietnam, before joining the 1st Ranger Battalion. “You’ll always have good people that gravitate towards challenges and have a higher set of goals,” said Murphy on why he joined the Ranger Battalion. “And that’s why people came to the Ranger Battalion. We had an awful lot of talent, the best of the officers, senior NCOs, and difficult missions to carry out.” This group of Rangers would live by and continue to live by Abrams’ comments, which later would be known as “Abrams Charters”: “The Ranger Battalion is to be an elite, light and most proficient infantry battalion in the world; a battalion that can do things with it’s hand an weapons better than anyone. The battalion will not contain any hoodlums or brigands and that if the battalion is formed of such persons it will be disbanded. Wherever the battalion goes it will be apparent that it is the best.” On January 25, 1974, Headquarters, U.S. Army Forces Command, published General Orders 127, directing the activation of the 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, with an effective date of January 31, 1974. The selection process began shortly thereafter and personnel assembled at Fort Benning, Ga., to undergo the cadre training from March through June 1974. On July 1, 1974, the 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, parachuted into Fort Stewart, Ga. Also activated later that year was the 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry. These modern Ranger battalions were first called upon in 1980. Elements of the 1st Battalion, participated in the Iranian hostage rescue attempt. As Murphy recalled, “this was the first time that Rangers were carrying out special operations missions.” The groundwork for Special Operations capability of today was laid during training and preparation for this operation. Rangers and other Special Operations Forces from throughout the Department of Defense developed tactics, techniques, and equipment from scratch, as no doctrine existed anywhere in the world. The combat effectiveness of the Ranger Battalions was again proven during the United States’ invasion of Grenada on Oct. 25, 1983. The mission of the Rangers was to protect the lives of American citizens and restore democracy to the island. What would be known as “Operation Urgent Fury”, 1st and 2nd Ranger Battalions conducted a daring low-level parachute assault at 500 feet, to seize the airfield at Point Salinas, rescue American citizens at the True Blue Medical Campus, and conducted air assault operations to eliminate pockets of resistance. As a result of the demonstrated effectiveness of the Ranger battalions, the Department of the Army announced in 1984 that it was increasing the size of the active-duty Ranger force to its highest level in 40 years, by activating the 3rd Battalion, 75th Infantry (Ranger), and Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 75th Infantry (Ranger), on Oct. 3, 1984. On December 20, 1989, the Ranger Regiment was called on again for OPERATION JUST CAUSE, in which U.S. forces restored democracy to Panama. The 1st Ranger Battalion, reinforced by Company C, 3rd Battalion, and a Regimental command and control team, conducted an early morning parachute assault onto Omar Torrijos International Airport and Tocumen Military Airfield, to neutralize the Panamanian Defense Forces’ 2nd Rifle Company, the entire Panamanian Air Force and secure the airfields for the arrival of the 82nd Airborne Division. Following the successful completion of the Regiment’s assault, Rangers conducted follow-on operations in support of Joint Task Force – South. The Rangers captured 1,014 Enemy Prisoners of War, and more than 18,000 arms of various types. The Rangers sustained five killed in action and 42 wounded. Again, on Feb. 12, 1991, elements from the 1st Ranger Battalion deployed to Saudi Arabia in support of OPERATION DESERT STORM. The Ranger conducted raids and provided a quick reaction force in cooperation with Allied forces. After our nation was viciously attacked on September 11, 2001, the Rangers were called upon to lead the way in the Global War on Terror. A battalion from the 75th Ranger Regiment has consecutively been deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan since Oct. 19, 2001. The 1st Ranger Battalion and the 75th Ranger Regiment continues to evolve with the War on Terror in order to increase combat power and maintain the highest level of readiness. Rangers fight hard, every day and night, in denied areas, against determined enemies, living the Ranger Creed. While Murphy described the equipment, tactics and techniques from his time with the Rangers, the make-up has not. “I think these guys now are a step ahead when they arrive to their Ranger Battalion then the guys we had in ’74,” he said. “You’re always going to have that percentage of people who want to be the best. They’re going to go to the more challenging units that require a greater sacrifice.” Rangers Lead the Way!
5 days ago
Gail
Timeline Photos
PHOTO OF THE DAY: U.S. Army 1st Lt. Michael D. Kay
5 days ago
Julio
The 75th Ranger Regiment
1st Ranger Battalion celebrates 40th Anniversary By: 75th Ranger Regiment Public Affairs Office The year was 1973, the outbreak of the Middle East War was a watershed for U.S. foreign policy toward the Middle East. The Department of the Army had co Read more ... ncern and needed a light mobile force that could quickly move to any troubled spot in the world. In the fall of 1973, Gen. Creighton Abrams, Army Chief of Staff, formulated the idea of reforming the first battalion-sized Ranger units since World War II. In January 1974, he sent a message to the field directing the formation of a Ranger battalion. Abrams would select the missions and picked the first officers. He felt a tough, disciplined and elite Ranger unit would set a standard for the rest of the United States Army and that, as Rangers “graduated” from Ranger units to Regular Army units, their influence would improve the entire Army. One of those initial Rangers was then-Staff Sgt. Steve Murphy, who served in Charlie Company Rangers back in Vietnam. Murphy had transferred to a couple units after Vietnam, before joining the 1st Ranger Battalion. “You’ll always have good people that gravitate towards challenges and have a higher set of goals,” said Murphy on why he joined the Ranger Battalion. “And that’s why people came to the Ranger Battalion. We had an awful lot of talent, the best of the officers, senior NCOs, and difficult missions to carry out.” This group of Rangers would live by and continue to live by Abrams’ comments, which later would be known as “Abrams Charters”: “The Ranger Battalion is to be an elite, light and most proficient infantry battalion in the world; a battalion that can do things with it’s hand an weapons better than anyone. The battalion will not contain any hoodlums or brigands and that if the battalion is formed of such persons it will be disbanded. Wherever the battalion goes it will be apparent that it is the best.” On January 25, 1974, Headquarters, U.S. Army Forces Command, published General Orders 127, directing the activation of the 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, with an effective date of January 31, 1974. The selection process began shortly thereafter and personnel assembled at Fort Benning, Ga., to undergo the cadre training from March through June 1974. On July 1, 1974, the 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, parachuted into Fort Stewart, Ga. Also activated later that year was the 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry. These modern Ranger battalions were first called upon in 1980. Elements of the 1st Battalion, participated in the Iranian hostage rescue attempt. As Murphy recalled, “this was the first time that Rangers were carrying out special operations missions.” The groundwork for Special Operations capability of today was laid during training and preparation for this operation. Rangers and other Special Operations Forces from throughout the Department of Defense developed tactics, techniques, and equipment from scratch, as no doctrine existed anywhere in the world. The combat effectiveness of the Ranger Battalions was again proven during the United States’ invasion of Grenada on Oct. 25, 1983. The mission of the Rangers was to protect the lives of American citizens and restore democracy to the island. What would be known as “Operation Urgent Fury”, 1st and 2nd Ranger Battalions conducted a daring low-level parachute assault at 500 feet, to seize the airfield at Point Salinas, rescue American citizens at the True Blue Medical Campus, and conducted air assault operations to eliminate pockets of resistance. As a result of the demonstrated effectiveness of the Ranger battalions, the Department of the Army announced in 1984 that it was increasing the size of the active-duty Ranger force to its highest level in 40 years, by activating the 3rd Battalion, 75th Infantry (Ranger), and Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 75th Infantry (Ranger), on Oct. 3, 1984. On December 20, 1989, the Ranger Regiment was called on again for OPERATION JUST CAUSE, in which U.S. forces restored democracy to Panama. The 1st Ranger Battalion, reinforced by Company C, 3rd Battalion, and a Regimental command and control team, conducted an early morning parachute assault onto Omar Torrijos International Airport and Tocumen Military Airfield, to neutralize the Panamanian Defense Forces’ 2nd Rifle Company, the entire Panamanian Air Force and secure the airfields for the arrival of the 82nd Airborne Division. Following the successful completion of the Regiment’s assault, Rangers conducted follow-on operations in support of Joint Task Force – South. The Rangers captured 1,014 Enemy Prisoners of War, and more than 18,000 arms of various types. The Rangers sustained five killed in action and 42 wounded. Again, on Feb. 12, 1991, elements from the 1st Ranger Battalion deployed to Saudi Arabia in support of OPERATION DESERT STORM. The Ranger conducted raids and provided a quick reaction force in cooperation with Allied forces. After our nation was viciously attacked on September 11, 2001, the Rangers were called upon to lead the way in the Global War on Terror. A battalion from the 75th Ranger Regiment has consecutively been deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan since Oct. 19, 2001. The 1st Ranger Battalion and the 75th Ranger Regiment continues to evolve with the War on Terror in order to increase combat power and maintain the highest level of readiness. Rangers fight hard, every day and night, in denied areas, against determined enemies, living the Ranger Creed. While Murphy described the equipment, tactics and techniques from his time with the Rangers, the make-up has not. “I think these guys now are a step ahead when they arrive to their Ranger Battalion then the guys we had in ’74,” he said. “You’re always going to have that percentage of people who want to be the best. They’re going to go to the more challenging units that require a greater sacrifice.” Rangers Lead the Way!
5 days ago
Georgia HINESVILLE, GA (WTOC) - Fort Stewart will close Georgia Highway 119 from 1 to 2 p.m. Thursday in order to safely demolish an old range tower by using ...
12 days ago
California
Fort MacArthur Museum
The 47th Artillery Brigade at Fort MacArthur 1952-1969 by S.E. Stokes and M.A. Berhow After the establishment of the Army Antiaircraft Artillery Command (ARAACOM) in 1950, Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA) battalions were slowly being brought up to str Read more ... ength and assigned to the Pacific coast. The 47th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Brigade was re-activated at Camp Stewart, Georgia, on 1 Apr. 1951 to oversee the training of the new AAA battalions stationed there, before being transferred on 10 Mar. 1952 to Fort Baker, California. The Brigade assumed command of the AAA brigades stationed in California at that time: the 466th (40 mm guns) at March AFB, the 459th (40 mm guns) at Travis AFB, the 464th (40 mm guns) at Castle AFB, the 718th (90 mm guns) and the 728th (90 mm guns) at San Francisco. On November 20, 1952 the 47th AAA Brigade established its headquarters on the middle reservation of Fort MacArthur. Additional 90 mm gun AAA battalions were activated in 1953: the 77th, the 551st and the 554th all at Los Angeles. In 1954 the 47th Brigade was reorganized and commanded only the units in Southern California: the 424th (now armed with 75 mm guns) at March AFB, the 77th (90 mm guns) as well as the 551st and 554th which were being converted to Nike units. Additional Army 90 mm gun AAA brigades were activated in the area in 1955: the 865th, the 933rd and the 720th, the latter battalion being manned by men of the California National Guard. In 1957 the 933rd was also converted to a Nike unit, with the 77th and the 856th AAA Battalions eventually being inactivated as AA guns were removed from the American CONUS The first Los Angeles area Nike-Ajax battery was emplaced in the mountains above Malibu in 1954. At the peak of the Nike period, there were 16 missile launch sites guarding the greater Los Angeles area, protecting an area of some 4,000 square miles with a "ring of supersonic steel." On September 27, 1955, Battery D 554th AAA missile battery at Site LA 55 Point Vicente became the first Nike site to be shown to the public. On June 1, 1957, the 720th AAA Battalion (90 mm gun) was reorganized and redesigned as the 720th Missile Battalion (Nike-Ajax). This was the first National Guard unit to be designated as a missile unit. On September 14, 1958, the 47th Artillery Brigade turned over operational control of four Nike-Ajax missile batteries to the California National Guard. Battery A - Site LA 40 at Long Beach, Battery B - Site LA 57 at Torrance, Battery C - Site LA 70 and Battery D - Site LA 73 at the dual Playa Del Rey site. The Headquarters and Headquarters Battery was established at Site LA 40 at Long Beach. This was the first time a National Guard unit assumed operational control of a Nike missile battery, and was to serve as a model for the eventual takeover of all Nike sites by the National Guard. In November, 1958, the 47th Artillery Brigade scored another first with the introduction of Army sentry dogs to guard missile sites. Four specially trained sentry dogs and their handlers were assigned to guarding the Chatsworth Nike-Hercules site (LA 88). These men were members of the first group of 28 dogs and handlers sent by the U.S. Army Air Defense Command to Fort Benning for training in August 1958. Approximately 500 dogs and handlers were required to put the sentry dog program into operation at the nation's Nike-Hercules sites. In 1958 the 47th AAA Brigade became the 47th Artillery Brigade (Air Defense). Beginning that year the regimental structure of the Artillery was reconstituted and the battalions were also reorganized. Some 2,000 officers and men made up the 47th Artillery Brigade which was eventually comprised of the Brigade headquarters and, subordinate to it, the 108th Artillery Group at Fort MacArthur and the 12th Artillery Group at Pasadena. The 12th Group was composed of two missile battalions, the 1st Missile Battalion, 56th Artillery (ex-933rd), in Pasadena, and the 4th Missile Battalion, 65th Artillery (ex-551st), located in Van Nuys. There were two battalions under the command of the 108th Group, the 3rd Missile Battalion, 57th Artillery (ex-554th), and the 4th Missile Battalion, 251st Artillery, California National Guard (ex-720th). In May of 1959, the 720th ADA Battalion was redesigned as the 4th Missile Battalion (Nike-Hercules) 251st Artillery, California Army National Guard. Batteries B and C remained Nike-Ajax batteries with no change in TOE. Batteries A and D were reorganized, but remained at their original stations. On March 6, 1963, Batteries A and D entered Nike-Hercules training at USARADCEN, Fort Bliss, Texas. They returned on the 29 of April, 1963. On May 1, 1963, Batteries A and D closed their Nike-Ajax sites (Site LA 40 Long Beach and Site LA 73 Playa Del Rey) and moved to new stations. Battery A moved to Site LA 32 Stanton, and Battery D moved to Site LA 43 Fort MacArthur for on-site training with active Army crews. On June 27, 1963, Batteries A and D assumed the Nike-Hercules operational mission at Stanton and Fort MacArthur (Sites LA 32 and LA 43) On January 2, 1964, Batteries B and C began Nike-Hercules training at Fort Bliss, Texas. On April 23, 1964, Batteries B and C left their stations at Sites LA 57 Torrance and LA 70 Playa Del Rey and assumed operational control of the Nike-Hercules sites at LA 55 Point Vicente (Battery B) and LA 29 Brea (Battery C). As the Nike-Hercules missiles were larger, had a longer range and were more powerful than the Nike-Ajax, less launch sites were required and only 9 of the original 16 sites were converted to fire the Nike-Hercules missiles. The other sites were inactivated by 1964. The 12th ADA Group was inactivated at Pasadena and the units were trimmed accordingly. By the late 1960s, the American missile defenses were beginning to be cut back by the Army. The Nike Hercules was designed for defense against attack by large formations of bombers. As the perceived threat changed from bomber attack to missile attack, the usefulness of the Nike Hercules diminished. In 1969, the 47th ADA Brigade was transferred to Homestead AFB, Florida, and the 19th ADA Group was activated at Fort MacArthur. By 1971 three more Los Angeles launch sites had been inactivated. On 4 February 1974, the Army ordered all existing US Nike batteries inactivated, resulting the closure of the remaining LA Nike sites.
12 days ago
Harold Back in the Fort after a week Mrs Stewart said we must have a Pizza
12 days ago
Jarvis
Militia Member from Fort Stewart Tells Why Group was Formed and why they Killed
www.wnct.com
"He said he wanted some people killed, I said I would be that person to kill them," said the young man in a suit as he addressed a Long County judge. He didn't look like a killer and in the white shirt
12 days ago
Sheila
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LONG ISLAND, NY Lilly: Still waiting! From Fort St
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Sylvia
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How one of our vets is spreading awareness and let
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Chuck
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How one of our vets is spreading awareness and let
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Cin
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Tracy
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LONG ISLAND, NY Lilly: Still waiting! From Fort St
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Klamath ARE YOU BORED? DON'T KNOW WHAT TO DO? HERE IS THE VENUE FOR THE MONTH OF AUGUST HERE IN THE KLAMATH BASIN STARTING TODAY, AUGUST 7TH, 2014: Thursday, August 7, 2014 12:00 PM PDT - Stories at Veterans Park Sponsored by Klamath County Library, Vetera Read more ... ns Park 5:30 PM PDT - Grow and preserve your own food 5:30 - 7:30 PM. Extend your growing and eating season, presented by OSE Extension Volunteers and staff. Klamath Basin Research and Extension Center, 6923 Washburn Way 541-883-7131 6:30 PM PDT - Conversation Project Lessons from Lincoln: Is Political Bipartisanship Possible? Hosted by Richard Etulain. Klamath County Library 7:30 PM PDT - The Producers August 7 - 17. Summer Community Musical. Ross Ragland Theater 541-884-5483 Friday, August 8, 2014 7:30 PM PDT - The Producers Musical The Producers! A New Mel Brooks Musical and winner of the most Tony Awards than any other musical! We invite you to join us for our Summer Community Musical, "The Producers", Directed by Chip Massie and Choreographed by Athena Clingman. The Producers is a musical adapted by Mel Brooks and Thomas Meehan from Brooks' 1968 film of the same name, with lyrics written by Brooks and music composed by Brooks and arranged by Glen Kelly and Doug Besterman. As in the film, the story concerns two theatrical producers who scheme to get rich by overselling interests in a Broadway flop. The humor of the show draws on ridiculous accents, poking fun at just about every group, and many show business in-jokes. Performances: August 7th, 8th, 9th, 14th, 15th and 16th at 7:30 pm. Sunday Matinees on August 10th and 17th at 2 pm Tickets are $29, $23, $19 Saturday, August 9, 2014 9:00 AM PDT - Klamath Falls Farmers Market 9:00 AM - 1:30 PM. Vendor booths of produce, bakery goods, canned/pickled foods, plants and much more. 9th Street between Main and Klamath Avenue 541-273-1102 11:00 AM PDT - Smokey Bears 70th Birthday 11:00 AM - 1:00 PM. The Fremont-Winema National Forest invites the public to meet Smokey Bear. Free event for kids of all ages. Children will be able to take part in t he Junior Forest Ranger program and each will get their own free Smokey Bear goody bag. Smokey Bear will make a special appearance as participants gather for cake and sing Happy Birthday. Miller Lake, Digit Point Campground, twelve miles west of Chemult, Oregon on Forest Road 9772. 541-365-7001 12:00 PM PDT - Stewart Lennox Community Potluck A community potluck at Warford Park for the residents of Stewart Lennox to meet our neighbors and discuss the efforts of forming a community watch program. The event will be at 12pm and everyone is welcome to attend. We do not want any alcohol, or drugs since there will be children attending. 2:00 PM PDT - 14th Annual Brats, Brews and Blues Festival 2:00 - 7:00 PM. Music, beer tasking, silent auction, full German bratwurst dinner. Presented as a fundraiser by Sunrise Rotary Club. Klamath Yacht Club, 2700 Front Street. 4:00 PM PDT - BBQ and Band 4:00 - 8:00 PM. Colonel Mustard Band, classic rock. Lake of the Woods Resort. 866-201-4194 5:00 PM PDT - Hot August Bingo and Dinner Pulled pork dinner followed by Bingo. Offered by Chiloquin Visions in Progress. Chiloquin Community Center 6:00 PM PDT - Benefit artifact exhibit and silent auction 6:00 - 8:00 PM. Exhibition of artifacts recovered from private land at the Fort Klamath historic site. Participants will hear a presentation by Mark Tveskov, professor of archaeology at Southern Oregon University. Tours of the site will be offered (across the highway from the Klamath County Museum). Refreshments. Fort Klamath Ranch, formerly known as Take it Easy Ranch. 541-883-4208 for reservations and tickets. 7:30 PM PDT - Education event and summer hike 7:30 - 9:30 PM. Forest outdoor specialists will guide participants in the exploration of human, plant and animal habitats. Sponsored by Fremont - Winema Forests and suitable for all ages. Sunset Campground at Lake of the Woods. 7:30 PM PDT - The Producers Musical The Producers! A New Mel Brooks Musical and winner of the most Tony Awards than any other musical! We invite you to join us for our Summer Community Musical, "The Producers", Directed by Chip Massie and Choreographed by Athena Clingman. The Producers is a musical adapted by Mel Brooks and Thomas Meehan from Brooks' 1968 film of the same name, with lyrics written by Brooks and music composed by Brooks and arranged by Glen Kelly and Doug Besterman. As in the film, the story concerns two theatrical producers who scheme to get rich by overselling interests in a Broadway flop. The humor of the show draws on ridiculous accents, poking fun at just about every group, and many show business in-jokes. Performances: August 7th, 8th, 9th, 14th, 15th and 16th at 7:30 pm. Sunday Matinees on August 10th and 17th at 2 pm Tickets are $29, $23, $19 Sunday, August 10, 2014 All Day - Crater Lake Rim Run Crater Lake National Park 12:00 PM PDT - Wiggles and Giggles Noon - 1:00 PM. Sponsored by Klamath County Library, Wiard Park 2:00 PM PDT - Two Tousand Miles Around Iceland in Seventeen Days Photos and commentary on Elaine and Bill Deutschman's trip around Iceland where they chronicled birds, sheep, reindeer, water falls, geysers and miles of empty volcanic land. Klamath County library. 2:00 PM PDT - The Producers Musical The Producers! A New Mel Brooks Musical and winner of the most Tony Awards than any other musical! We invite you to join us for our Summer Community Musical, "The Producers", Directed by Chip Massie and Choreographed by Athena Clingman. The Producers is a musical adapted by Mel Brooks and Thomas Meehan from Brooks' 1968 film of the same name, with lyrics written by Brooks and music composed by Brooks and arranged by Glen Kelly and Doug Besterman. As in the film, the story concerns two theatrical producers who scheme to get rich by overselling interests in a Broadway flop. The humor of the show draws on ridiculous accents, poking fun at just about every group, and many show business in-jokes. Performances: August 7th, 8th, 9th, 14th, 15th and 16th at 7:30 pm. Sunday Matinees on August 10th and 17th at 2 pm Tickets are $29, $23, $19 6:00 PM PDT - Easy Listening on the patio 6:00 - 8:00 PM. B. Wishes, Lake of the Woods Resort 866-201-4194 Tuesday, August 12, 2014 6:00 PM PDT - Membership Party Ross Ragland Theater Guild invited members and potential members to join this all-volunteer organization that helps keep Ross Ragland Theater running. Ross Ragland Theater Cultural Center, 541-884-0651 ext 18 Wednesday, August 13, 2014 10:00 AM PDT - Wacky Wednesday 10:00 - 11:00 AM. $1 for 1 hour visit per person. Children's Museum of Klamath Falls 541-885-2995 3:00 PM PDT - Klamath Farmer's Market - Wednesdays 3:00 - 6:00 PM. At the Town and Country shopping center in front of Big Lots. Thursday, August 14, 2014 12:00 PM PDT - Stories Sponsored by Klamath County Library, Veterans Park 12:00 PM PDT - Klamath County Fair and carnival Noon - 11:00 PM. Adults $3, Seniors and kids 7 - 12 $2, kids 6 and under free. Wrist bands at gate are $25. 2:00 PM PDT - Monthly lecture series on nationally-known artists Historic Movies and Art of Arnold Frieburg. Favell Museum. 7:30 PM PDT - The Producers Musical The Producers! A New Mel Brooks Musical and winner of the most Tony Awards than any other musical! We invite you to join us for our Summer Community Musical, "The Producers", Directed by Chip Massie and Choreographed by Athena Clingman. The Producers is a musical adapted by Mel Brooks and Thomas Meehan from Brooks' 1968 film of the same name, with lyrics written by Brooks and music composed by Brooks and arranged by Glen Kelly and Doug Besterman. As in the film, the story concerns two theatrical producers who scheme to get rich by overselling interests in a Broadway flop. The humor of the show draws on ridiculous accents, poking fun at just about every group, and many show business in-jokes. Performances: August 7th, 8th, 9th, 14th, 15th and 16th at 7:30 pm. Sunday Matinees on August 10th and 17th at 2 pm Tickets are $29, $23, $19 7:30 PM PDT - Klamath County Destruction Derby Adults $15, Kids 7-12 $7, kids 6 and under free. Friday, August 15, 2014 10:00 AM PDT - Klamath County Fair and carnival 10:00 AM - 11:00 PM. Adults $3, seniors and kids 7-12 $2, kids 6 and under free. Wrist bands $25 at the gate. 7:00 PM PDT - PRCA Rodeo Klamath County Fairgrounds. Pre-sale discount only $12. Show tickets at gate for $2 off admission to fair. Tickets at Big R, Lithia Dodge, Albertsons, Sherms Thunderbird, Grange Co-op 7:30 PM PDT - The Producers Musical The Producers! A New Mel Brooks Musical and winner of the most Tony Awards than any other musical! We invite you to join us for our Summer Community Musical, "The Producers", Directed by Chip Massie and Choreographed by Athena Clingman. The Producers is a musical adapted by Mel Brooks and Thomas Meehan from Brooks' 1968 film of the same name, with lyrics written by Brooks and music composed by Brooks and arranged by Glen Kelly and Doug Besterman. As in the film, the story concerns two theatrical producers who scheme to get rich by overselling interests in a Broadway flop. The humor of the show draws on ridiculous accents, poking fun at just about every group, and many show business in-jokes. Performances: August 7th, 8th, 9th, 14th, 15th and 16th at 7:30 pm. Sunday Matinees on August 10th and 17th at 2 pm Tickets are $29, $23, $19 Saturday, August 16, 2014 All Day - Crater Lake Centry Ride Cyclers of all ages welcome. Crater Lake 541-884-1343 9:00 AM PDT - Klamath Falls Farmers Market 9:00 AM - 1:30 PM. Vendor booths of produce, bakery goods, canned/pickled foods, plants and much more. 9th Street between Main and Klamath Avenue 541-273-1102 9:00 AM PDT - Annual Trash to Treasures Yard Sale 9:00 AM - 2:00 PM. Sponsored by the Agency Lake Neighborhood Watch, with a portion of proceeds going to Chiloquin Ambulance Fund. 36565 Modoc Point Road. 10:00 AM PDT - USFS Ranger-led wilderness hike 10:00 AM - 2:00 PM. Easy 7-mile round trip to Isherwood Lake in the Sky Lake Wilderness through dense lodgepole and mountain hemlock stands, wet lowlands and numerous lakes. Meet at Coldsprings Trailhead. Reservation required 541-883-3400 10:00 AM PDT - Klamath County Fair and carnival 10:00 AM - 11:00 PM. Adults $3, seniors and kids 7-12 $2, kids 6 and under free. Wrist bands $25 at the gate. 10:30 AM PDT - Family Flea Market 10:30 AM - 2:30 PM. At The Children's Museum of Klamath Falls, 711 East Main Street. Questions on market or space: klamathkids@gmail.com 4:00 PM PDT - BBQ and band 4:00 - 8:00 PM. Robbie Decosta. Lake of the Woods Resort 866-201-4194 7:00 PM PDT - PRCA Rodeo Klamath County Fairgrounds. Pre-sale discount only $12. Show tickets at gate for $2 off admission to fair. Tickets at Big R, Lithia Dodge, Albertsons, Sherms Thunderbird, Grange Co-op 7:30 PM PDT - The Producers Musical The Producers! A New Mel Brooks Musical and winner of the most Tony Awards than any other musical! We invite you to join us for our Summer Community Musical, "The Producers", Directed by Chip Massie and Choreographed by Athena Clingman. The Producers is a musical adapted by Mel Brooks and Thomas Meehan from Brooks' 1968 film of the same name, with lyrics written by Brooks and music composed by Brooks and arranged by Glen Kelly and Doug Besterman. As in the film, the story concerns two theatrical producers who scheme to get rich by overselling interests in a Broadway flop. The humor of the show draws on ridiculous accents, poking fun at just about every group, and many show business in-jokes. Performances: August 7th, 8th, 9th, 14th, 15th and 16th at 7:30 pm. Sunday Matinees on August 10th and 17th at 2 pm Tickets are $29, $23, $19 Sunday, August 17, 2014 2:00 PM PDT - The Producers Musical The Producers! A New Mel Brooks Musical and winner of the most Tony Awards than any other musical! We invite you to join us for our Summer Community Musical, "The Producers", Directed by Chip Massie and Choreographed by Athena Clingman. The Producers is a musical adapted by Mel Brooks and Thomas Meehan from Brooks' 1968 film of the same name, with lyrics written by Brooks and music composed by Brooks and arranged by Glen Kelly and Doug Besterman. As in the film, the story concerns two theatrical producers who scheme to get rich by overselling interests in a Broadway flop. The humor of the show draws on ridiculous accents, poking fun at just about every group, and many show business in-jokes. Performances: August 7th, 8th, 9th, 14th, 15th and 16th at 7:30 pm. Sunday Matinees on August 10th and 17th at 2 pm Tickets are $29, $23, $19 6:00 PM PDT - Easy listening on the patio 6:00 - 8:00 PM. Pete Herzog. Lake of the Woods Resort, 866-201-4194 10:00 PM PDT - Klamath County Fair and carnival 10:00 AM - 8:00 PM. Adults $3, seniors and kids 7-12 $2, kids 6 and under free. Wrist bands $25 at the gate. Monday, August 18, 2014 All Day - Camp Evergreen August 18-22. For children 8 to 18 who have experienced the death of a friend or family member. Week-long residential camp through Klamath Hospice. Mountain Lakes Bible Camp, 541-882-2901 Tuesday, August 19, 2014 6:00 PM PDT - Run for you Life Couch to 5K Free Lecture Series Grant Niskanen, MD covers sustaining motivation for physical activity. Community Health Education Center, 2200 N Eldorado. 541-880-2770 Wednesday, August 20, 2014 8:00 AM PDT - Klamath Farmer's Market - Wednesday 3:00 - 6:00 PM. At the Town and Country shopping center in front of Big Lots. 10:00 AM PDT - Wacky Wednesday 10:00 - 11:00 AM. $1 for 1 hour visit per person. Children's Museum of Klamath Falls 541-885-2995 Thursday, August 21, 2014 All Day - Klamath Tribes Restoration Days Pow Wow and Youth Rodeo August 21-24. Chiloquin Rodeo Grounds 5:30 PM PDT - CASA open house 5:30 - 8:30 PM. Come meet the new staff and trour our new Main Street office during Third Thursday. 731 Main St, suite 202 6:00 PM PDT - Third Thursday 6:00 - 9:00 PM. Children's theme. Demonstrations, music, entertainment, vendors, business special. Downtown Klamath Falls Friday, August 22, 2014 6:00 PM PDT - Film series cosponsored by Friends Church and Klamath Peace Readers Fog of War. Discussion to follow, refreshments. Friends Church, 1918 Oregon Ave. 541-891-2722, 541-205-6313 Saturday, August 23, 2014 All Day - 9th Annual Oregon State Traditional Chili cook-off, homemade Hobby Festival, Big Springs Show and Shine, and Children's Are Festival Day-long activities, food, vendors. Bonanza Big Springs Park, 541-545-6566 9:00 AM PDT - Klamath Falls Farmers Market 9:00 AM - 1:30 PM. Vendor booths of produce, bakery goods, canned/pickled foods, plants and much more. 9th Street between Main and Klamath Avenue 541-273-1102 9:00 AM PDT - 23rd Annual Klamath Basin HBA Golf Tournament The 23rd Annual Klamath Basin HBA Golf Tournament is sponsored by Fisher Nicholson Realty at the Harbor Links Golf Course in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Spend a relaxing day on a beautiful course with your friends or co-workers and help support the Iron Owl Challenge (Oregon Tech Veterans Association)! Lunch, carts, 18 holes of golf, prizes and much more are included! Call 541-884-8570 or visit www.klamathbasinhba.org for more information! 4:00 PM PDT - BBQ & Band 4:00 - 8:00 PM. Blue Grass Festival, Lake of the Woods. 7:30 PM PDT - Education event and sunset hike 7:30 - 9:30 PM. Forest outdoor specialists will guide participants in the exploration of human, plant and animal habitats. Sponsored by Fremont-Winema Forest, suitable for all ages. Fourmile Lake Campground Sunday, August 24, 2014 All Day - Blue Grass Festival Blue Grass Music all day. Lake of the Woods Resort 866-201-4194 Wednesday, August 27, 2014 10:00 AM PDT - Wacky Wednesday 10:00 - 11:00 AM. $1 for 1 hour visit per person. Children's Museum of Klamath Falls 541-885-2995 3:00 PM PDT - Klamath Farmer's Market 3:00 - 6:00 PM. At the Town and Country shopping center in front of Big Lots. Saturday, August 30, 2014 9:00 AM PDT - Klamath Falls Farmers Market 9:00 AM - 1:30 PM. Vendor booths of produce, bakery goods, canned/pickled foods, plants and much more. 9th Street between Main and Klamath Avenue 541-273-1102 4:00 PM PDT - BBQ and band 4:00 - 8:00 PM. The Rogue Suspects, funk and blues. Lake of the Woods Resort 866-2201-4194
13 days ago
Sarah
Timeline Photos
How one of our vets is spreading awareness and let
13 days ago
Gail
Timeline Photos
How one of our vets is spreading awareness and let
13 days ago
Paul I need that sign for the 4th of July!
Timeline Photos
How one of our vets is spreading awareness and let
13 days ago
Sandi Dang I wanted to watch them blow this up, I forgot about it though...this works just as well!!
WTOC Jamie Ertle FIRE IN THE HOLE!!! GA Hwy 119 is back open after Fort Stewart took care of an old range tower.
13 days ago
Segar WTOC Jamie Ertle FIRE IN THE HOLE!!! GA Hwy 119 is back open after Fort Stewart took care of an old range tower.
13 days ago
Pachaiyappa's Vallal Pachaiyappa Pachaiyappa Mudaliar, the most munificent patron of learning and religion in modern south India, was born in 1754 in Periapalayam, a village about twenty five miles from Madras, where there is famous Sakthi temple.His father, Visv Read more ... anatha Mudaliar, had passed away a few months before and he seemed born to destitution and misery.But by dint of unexampled commercial acumen, always regulated by honesty and fairness, he amassed a huge fortune in only forty years, when he passed away in 1794.It was with his money that the first Indian College in Madras was started and, along with it, a number of other educational institutions which keep his memory green. Visvanatha Mudaliar, an Agamudiya Vellala, has been living in Kanchipuram, the great city of Tamil antiquity and heritage, in quite humble circumstances.He and his wife, Punchi Ammal, had two daughters, Subbammal and Acchammal, before Pachaiyappa was born.Visvanatha Mudaliar's death, apparently in prime of life, was a great blow to the bereaved family.The mother, along with her two children, virtually took refuge in Periapalayam.There she had the good fortune to earn the esteem of Reddi Rayar, who was Faujdar of the Periapalayam District under the Nawab of the Carnatic.It would seem that Visvanatha Mudaliar and Puchi Ammal used, before the later settled down there, to visit the village for the famous festival and that they had made friends with the Faujdar. It was there that, in a few months, Pachaiyappa was born. For some five years the family was able to live in fair comfort, mainly because Reddi Rayar (the name sounds strange, but it was not uncommon at the time, for another man of the same name was involved in the imbroglio of the debts of the Nawab of the Carnatic, Mohammad Ali; the correct form of the name seems to be Reddi Rao) and his wife, Venkatammal, befriended the helpless family out of old friendship.Then tragedy struck again.Reddi Rayar passed away, and the family was again left adrift.Venkatammal and some other friends in Periyapalayam continued to help it, but Puchi Ammal resolved to remove to Madras, to the "Black Town's" as George Town used to be called then.The family was able to obtain a place of residence, a small house, at the northern end of a lane called Swami Maistry Street, near Walltax Road.(Another source of information says, near the Esplanade.Here the nearly distraught mother was fortunate enough to obtain the help of "Powney" Narayana Pillai, of Neidavaya, through a neighbour, who was an employee of that magnate. Since this kind and helpful Indian leader of the times was greatly instrumental in Pachaiyappa developing into multi-millionaire, it is necessary to explain what he was and the conditions of his time. In 1760, when Pachaiyappa first came to Madras, hardly a year had passed since, for the second time, the French had besieged Fort St.George, but this time unsuccessfully.Count de Lally, maddened by the failure, had retreated, wreaking destruction along his path.The victorious British were beginning to rebuild the fort into something very much like what it is today.But the debris of the ineffective siege would be still strewn about, and young Pachaiyappa would have seen what war meant to people. He would, of course, have been for too young to understand the political and economic conditions of the time.These were pretty chaotic.The Nawab of the Carnatic, Mohammad Ali, was nominally ruler of a vast territory extending from Nellore to Tirunelveli. The real rulers were the British.In the Carnatic wars, they had defeated the French.The French siege of Fort St.George was an incident in the second war. The inhabitants of the "Black Town" had felt war's alarms.Very near where Pachaiyappa was now living, a skirmish had occurred on December 14, 1758, hardly two years before he had come to live in Madras.Colonel Draper had a brush with a French contingent.There was some street fighting in this war, and the "Black Town's" appearance could not have been much improved thereby. The young boy must have heard some of the older residents talk about the stirring events of the first Carnatic war when, in 1746, on the banks of the Adyar river, a tiny French contingent, marching from Pondicherry, had made short work of a huge array of the Nawab's, about de la Bourdonnais' siege of the fort, about the British surrender after only two days of nominal resistance.He might have heard but probably could not have realised the significance, of the exploit of Robert Clive when, with a small force, he held at bay, in Arcot fort, a huge army of Chanda Saheb who, under French auspices, was fighting Mohammad Ali for the throne of the Carnatic.It was a troubled time for Madras and its inhabitants, particularly for those like Pachaiyappa who had no money. Worse was to come in the coming years.For, in 1767, the Mysore cavalry of Hyder Ali raided Madras for the first time and, two years later, for the second time.The Mysoreans almost caught the Governor of Madras by surprise.He was in the old Government House, by the Cooum, and escaped only because, by accident, a boat happened to be moored on the river.What the two invasions did to the Carnatic is embalmed for ever in the famous passage in Edmund Burke's speech in the British House of Commons on the Nawab's debts.For long years, the grim memory survived among the people.Pachaiyappa was to live through the time of terror. The times were out of joint mainly because the Mughal empire was collapsing, and there was no firm central control. Following Aurangzeb's death in 1707, which was followed by the inevitable war of succession among his sons, and following the devastating invasions of Nadir shah and Ahmed Shah Abdali, the provinces of the empire were breaking away from Delhi. In the Deccan Asaf Jan had or rather the fiction, was that the Nizam owed allegiance to the Mughal emperor in Delhi, and that the Nawab of the Carnatic similarly owed fealty to the Nizam. In fact, the Nizam was virtually independent of the emperor and, likewise, the Nawab of the Nizam, only that the Nawab's independence was being challenged and, finally, was subverted by the growing British power. The British, who built Fort St.George in the middle of the seventeenth century, were waxing as a result their success over the French and also as a result of the Nawab's weakness. It was as his champion against his challenger and would-be supplanter, Chanda Sahed, that they were establishing themselves.Day by day the Nawab came to depend on them for his throne. The British exacted their price for their help, and it was ruinous. The Nawab ahd to borrow money wherever he could in order to satisfy them. This involved him in enormous difficulties. He borrowed from practically every Briton, official and non-official, in Madras of any note or none and promised them ruinous interest. After a time, forged bonds supposedly of his began to circulate, and all was confusion. The Nawab, always at his wit's end for ready money, would auction the revenues of his territories; that is, sell to the highest bidder the right to collect land and other taxes from the cultivators. The tax farmer undertook to pay a certain amount of money to the Nawab. He was free to exact from the farmer as much money as he could and in what manner he pleased. The farmer was at his mercy. Little wonder that the country was groaning under the oppression. At the time Pachaiyappa came to Madras, the British territorial possessions in south India were confined to the Northern Cicars, the Jaghire district, and the commercial "factories" on the coast. The Jaghire district was Chengalpattu district, so named because the Nawab had given it to the British as a jaghir. Conditions here were quite miserable. William Place, a Collector of the district (who is associated with the famous Madurantakam tank incident) said after Hyder Ali's invasions, "Hardly any signs were left in money parts of the country of its having been inhabited by human beings than the bones of the bodies that had been massacred; or the naked walls of the houses, choultries and temples, which had been burnt. To the havoc of war succeeded the affliction of famine, and the emigrations arising from successive calamities nearly depopulated the districts". Thanjavur district, with the fortunes of which Pachaiyappa was to be closely connected for some years, was in a better condition. But even there mismanagement by the Rajas had taken its toll. An English observer, Fullarton, was exaggerating when he wrote that everywhere the region was "marked" with the distinguishing features of a desert". For, the district recovered quite remarkably after the devastations. Still, it did not escape scatheless. Thanjavur suffered, in addition to the common disasters of the Carnatic, from its Raja Raja's military weakness. The British bullied and cajoled the Nawab, and the Nawab bullied the Raja. The Nawab asserted a vague suzerainty over the Raja, from whom he demanded tribute. The Raja evaded paying it as long and ass often as he could. Ultimately, the Nawab resolved to seize Thanjavur, which would prove a rich source of income for him. It was this which led to that celebrated incident in the history of Madras, the arrest of the Governor, Lord Pigot, by some members of his own council and his subsequent death. Pigot, whom the Raja had bribed, with stood the Nawab's clamour for Thanjavur. The Nawab, who knew the price of every Briton who haunted his durbar, had bribed many members of the Governor's Council, and these persons went to the extreme length of arresting their own Governor. Ultimately, the Nawab had to disgorge Thanjavur and, still later; in 1801 the British possessed themselves of both the Carnatic and Thanjavur, pensioning off Nawab and Raja. "Powney" Narayana Pillai, who befriended Pachaiyappa's family and was responsible for launching him on his career of commercial and financial success, was a dubash. According to Henry Love the author of Vestiges of Old Madras, this word derives from Hindustani 'dobashi', a man of two languages, an interpreter or a broker. The British did not know the local languages, and the Indians did not know the local languages, and the Indians did not know English, at least to begin with. An interpreter was necessary in any commercial transaction between the two peoples. Starting as just an interpreter, the dubash gradually became a broker, one who looked after the commercial interests of his European master and was paid for doing so. The institution dates virtually from the beginning of Madras history. As early as 1686, a Fort St.George Consultation refers to 'the Chief Dubass'. Nearly every European had his dubash, including the Governor and also the Company in its official capacity. The dubash was a vital element in the commerce and trade of the times. Thomas Powney, a 'free merchant', or a British trader who was not in the Company's employ and carried on his activities under license from it, belonged to a family that had been connected with Madras since early in the eighteenth century. The first member of the family to appear in the Madras records is John Powney (1683-1740), a sailor. Thomas came to India as a 'free merchant' in 1750. He was Mayor of Madras in 1764. He was living in the fort in 1772 and appears in the Madras records twice; in 1775 as one of the merchants who petitioned the Government for a regular postal sitting in the jury at the inquest on Lord Pigot, following his sensational arrest. It is clear that Thomas Powney was a leading merchant in Madras at the time. Narayana Pillai found employment for Pachaiyappa, then fast developing into a shrewd, but never dishonest, commercial agent under one Nicholas, another 'free merchant', as dubash. The employer might be Norton Nicholas, who is known in 1754 to have been trading from Madras. He used to travel frequently in the southern districts for goods to export to Britain. The young dubash made a small fortune in the course of this business. He entrusted it to Narayana Pillai, his benefactor. Even at this young age he devoted a part of his earnings to religious charity. The young man married his niece, Ayyalammal daughter of his first sister, Subbammal. He marked the occasion with his first considerable religious benefaction. He had images of Goddess Sivakami and of Sir Bali Nayaka installed in the great Ekambaresvara temple in Kanchipuram and performed the consecration (or kumbabhishekam) of the shrines on a grand scale on March 27, 1774. On the same day he laid the foundation-stone of a kalyana mandapa in the temple. Subsequently, this structure was completed. If, as is very probable, this mandapa is the big one near the inner tank, it was a considerable undertaking. Remarkably enough, the benefactor was only twenty years old. Two years later, Pachaiyappa set up as a revenue farmer in Chengalpattu district and laid the foundations of his enormous fortune. In fact, he undertook so many other responsibilities also that it is amazing to realize that the master financier and merchant prince was just twenty-two years old. The precociousness is unparalleled in the commercial history of modern India. In addition to farming revenue in Chengalpattu district, particularly in Pundamalli, Tripassur and some other parghanas, Pachaiyappa entered into agreements with the Nawab's officers and with British "free" merchants over payments due on inam lands, disbursement of salaries to the Nawab's employees, meeting claims on bonds. There were many other kinds of transaction for which the incredible young man assumed responsibility. He also entered into agreements with the farmers of some taluks, and supplied huge quantities of paddy to the Company. As if all this were not enough, he also held the agency business between the Nawab's officers and some British merchants in all these extensive transactions he was assisted by Pungathur Chengalvaraya Mudaliar and Dharmaraya Mudaliar. One might think that the young merchant and agent had taken too much on himself. But this was not all. Chengalpattu district, where he was now active, had gone though some bad times. The Nawab had given it to the British, but for some seventeen years, from 1763 to 1780, he rented it from them at a cost of 3,68,350 pagodas. When the second Mysore was broke out in 1780, the Madras Government took over the district and placed it under the Committee of Assigned Revenues. The committee made arrangements with several renters to collect the revenue. Pachaiyappa was one of these. In parenthesis, it is necessary to explain the state of the currency at the time. The chaotic conditions helped money changers, or shroffs, make much money for themselves. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, there were in the Carnatic some twenty-two mints under the Nawab's control and some more under the British, the French and the Dutch. The Nawab's leading mints were in Kovalam, Santhome and Arcot. The British had set up theirs in Fort St.George and Fort St.David (Cuddalore), the French in Pondicherry, the Dutch in Pulicat. All these mints issued coins. The principal variety was the pagoda. There were two leading types of this, one for use in the Carnatic, the other in the Northern Circars. Wholesale transactions were settled with bags of pagodas. The shroffs usually circulated pagodas in bags of a thousand each. By 1720, the Nawab's mints began issuing coins of lower tough than usual. They made more pagodas or rupees, another coin introduced into the carnatic at the end of the seventeenths century and used mainly to pay the Nawab's troops, out of the same quantity of silver or gold than the Company mints did. For example, the Nawab's mints in Santhome and Arcot made Rs.266 and fourteen annas out of every hundred ounces of silver, whereas the company mints made Rs.257 and seven annas. This helped the merchant to obtain nine rupees and seven annas more for his hundred ounces of silver at the Nawab's mints than at the Company's. The same situation obtained with gold. The natural result was that the merchants preferred to coin their bullion with the Nawab and, in consequence, currency in the Carnatic was progressively debased in the period between 1720 and 1740. In 1720, the pagoda had eight and five eight parts out of ten in fine gold. This proportion fell even to just five.The regulations were ignored with such impunity that the mints coined pagodas of whatever "touch", as the expression went, the proprietor of the bullion asked for. At one time the Madras shroffs were ordered not to seal up any pagoda of a lower 'touch' than eight and one fortieth. But they ignored the order with impunity and sealed up pagodas of much inferior "touch". Finally, the Company began minting pagodas of fitness of eight parts. This was the star pagoda, so called because it bore a star on the reverse. It was the standard coin in south India until the early part of the nineteenth century. It was worth Rs.3.50. The ordinary pagoda was exchanged for three rupees. The silver rupee was, by a proclamation dated January 7, 1818, declared the standard coin in the Madras Presidency. Farming the revenue was very profitable especially if the renter was without conscience, cruel and greedy. How much money he could exact for himself more than the amount he had contracted to pay the Company depended upon how efficient his engines of extortion from the poor peasants were. To do them justice, they were usually efficient to the point of ruthlessness. But experience in revenue matters was also required to the tax farmers, and most of them lacked it. Besides, the Company would demand large advances from them, and theses they could not pay. In the result, most of them defaulted in the third or fourth year of the lease. The Company deprived them of their estates and even imprisoned them. Renter of the Company was no sinecure.But Pachaiyappa, for one, never defaulted. He was as shrewd at business as he was pious and charitable at heart. He made it a principle always to be honest. This earned him the esteem of all those with whom he had dealings. At the end of this period, he emerged as the foremost of the dubashes in the Madras Presidency. He was senior dubash to Robert Joseph Sulivan. Sulivan, One of the many persons of that name (there were at least four of them in the Company's service in the Madras Presidency in the eighteenth century, John, Stephen, and John Stewart, in addition to Richard Joseph) jointed the Company's service in 1768 and subsequently became "Secretary in the Military Department, Judge Advocate-General and Translator". He was also Resident at the Nawab's court. Till the beginning of the nineteenth century Government officials in Madras could also trade privately and carry on other activities. The Nawab sent Sulivan in March 1781, as his representative to the Governor General in Calcutta, Warren Hastings, with complaints against Lord Macartney, the Governor of Madras, mainly over Thanjavur and the assignment of some districts which he had made to the Company. Though Sulivan did not achieve all of the Nawab's aims, he was fairly successful. But that was not wholly due to his diplomatic skill. Warren Hastings disliked Macartney, fearing that the handsome and influential nobleman might replace him as Governor-General. Personal prejudice was an important factor in the dealings of eminent Britons in India in public affairs at the time. Hastings was pleased at the opportunity of doing Macartney an ill turn. There was another Sulivan, named John among British "free merchants" in Madras at this time. Actually, he had arrived in Madras in 1765 as a civil servant.He was then seventeen years old. (There were a number of what would toady seem incredibly young men in the Company's civil and military services at the time. Pachaiyappa, himself also young, would not have suffered the pangs of any "generation gap"). He was, like his other British contemporaries, allowed to trade as a 'free merchant'. In this capacity he tendered for a hospital proposed in Madras in 1771. During the closing stages of the second Mysore war (1780-1784) he was appointed General Superintendent of affairs in the southern districts of the Madras Presidency. Pachaiyappa helped him discharge his duties there. He was by his side till 1785, when the assignment ended. For some time, Pachaiyappa was active farther south, as agent to Colonel William Fullarton, who had been ordered to suppress the many palayakkars who had not reconciled themselves to British control. In his book, A view of the English Interests in India. Fullarton pays u tribute to his Indian colleague. His "earnestness of purpose, persuasive power, and faculty for organization and the success that attended his work on that occasion not only won him the approbation of the authorities but also made a favorable impression calculated to do him ultimately a much larger amount of substantial good". Remarkably precocious, Pachaiyappa had, at this young age, many of the qualities that usually go with wise old age. It was now that Pachaiyappa turned his attention to affairs in Thanjavur which were to engross him till his untimely death in 1794, at the age of only forty. Ekoji, or Vyankoji, a half brother of the great Shivaji, had set up the Maratha dynasty in Thanjavur in 1676, or thereabouts. He ruled till 1683. His successor, Shaji (1684-1712), was a man of parts; scholar, linguist, dramatist and patron of the scholars who flourished at his court and his kingdom. Sarabhoji I (1712-1728) and Tukkoji (1728-1736), both of them his brothers, continued his traditions. But there was anarchy following the latter's death. Pratap Singh (1739-1763), who quelled the anarchy, was a strong ruler. His reign coincided with the Carnatic wars which were ostensibly fought between Mohammed Ali and Chanda Saheb for the Nawabi of the Carnatic, but really between the British and the French. Thanjavur was a rich kingdom, but a week one, on easy prey to enemies. On one occasion, when the French and Chanda Saheb were besieging Thanjavur, the defenders withdrew from the battlements for their mid-day meal and were quietly digesting it when the besiegers less concerned about creature comforts during a war successfully stormed the fort. The old Maratha hardihood had disappeared in enervating luxury. Nevertheless, Pratap Singh contrived to hold his own, to a greater or lesser extent, in the murderous politics of the day. The Rajas, already involved in the wars of the foreigners and their indigenous clients, carried on one of their own, with the Setupathis of Ramanathapuram. Their fortunes fluctuated. But, on the whole, the waiting foreigner was the only one to profit. With Pratap Singh's death, the kingdom fell into a decline under his successors and was virtually extinguished in 1801, though it survived nominally and as pensioners of the rampaging British till 1855. It was with Amar Singh (1787-1798) that Pachaiyappa had to deal. Tuljaji (1763-1787) had succeeded Pratap Singh to a hopeless legacy of war, internal dissensions and debilitating luxury. The Nawab, pretending a claim of suzerainty over Thanjavur, invaded it in 1771. Tuljaji was compelled to buy him off. He signed a humiliating treaty whereby about thirty-two lakhs of pagodas were paid as war expenses in addition to eight lakhs as arrears of tribute and two districts were ceded. Soon after this, the Raja had to buy off Hyder Ali, who threatened on invasion, and Hyder's invasions were no joke. The Raja not fulfilling the treaty with the Nawab, the latter launched another invasion, again with the Nawab, the latter launched another invasion again with the help of the British, and had him imprisoned. Quartered on the hapless peasants, the Nawab's harpies, the most notorious of whom was Paul Benfield, bled the kingdom white. In 1775, as much as eighty-one lakhs of rupees were extorte; the highest amount collected till then has been only fifty-seven and a half lakhs of rupees in 1761. Subsequently, the Raja was released from prison and restored to the throne. But this was followed by an invasion by Hyder Ali, which could not be averted. The people suffered as they had never before. With the next ruler, Amar Singh, Pachaiyappa had extensive financial dealings. Amar Singh was an illegitimate son of Pratap Singh. It was Tuljaji's dying wish that Amar Singh should be Regent for his own adopted son, Sarabhoji II. The British forced onerous treaties on the Regent. He had to agree to set apart two-fifths of the kingdom's revenues to meet the expenses of the military peace-time establishment, and for this he had also to give territorial security. The amount would be doubled if war came. In addition, the Regent was to pay four lakhs of pagodas as annual tribute to the Company and three lakhs towards debts due to the Nawab. These charges were so heavey that the Regent could not possibly meet them. In addition, his place as Regent was insecure, and he was extravagant. In a few years the Regent fell into arrears. In 1790-91 the Company wrested from him the right to collect taxes. This brought to relief to the harassed peasants. The Company's dubashes were equally rapacious, their aim being to make as much money as possible in as short a time as possible. It was said that an unscrupulous dubash m ight make two to four lakhs in ten to fifteen years. In 1792, after the third Mysore war, the Company imposed another onerous treaty on the Regent. He had to pay a part of the expenses of the military force that the Company maintained chiefly in the forts. In wartime the Company could virtually take over the kingdom, allowing the Raja a lakh of pagodas and one-fifth of the net revenue. If the Regent did not pay the tribute and subsidy in time, the Company could collect the amount for itself. It was against this background that Pachaiyappa's activities in Thanjavur should be considered. It is a wonder that he could keep his hands clean in this welter of corruption and fraud, coercion and oppression. Amar Singh wished to be made Raja in his own right, and not a mere Regent. On his petitions, the Governor-General, Lord Cornwallis, directed the Governor of Madras, Sir Archibald Campbell, to inquire into the circumstances under which Sarabhoji had been adopted by Tuljaji.Campbell went to Thanjavur in April 1787, and asked twelve pandits for their opinion on the legality of the adoption. These pandits had already been bribed by Amar Singh, and they unanimously said that "the adoption of Sarabhoji was illegal and invalid, and the right of Amar Singh to the throne clear and undoubted". Campbell placed Amar Singh on the throne. There are diametrically opposed views on the nature of Amar Singh's administration. According to far from disinterested evidence, it was a tyranny and a corruption. It was alleged that the sar-i-khel, the equivalent of Chief Justice, sold justice and that six rapacious individuals to whom the management of the kingdom was given tyrannized over the people and misappropriated the State revenues. But another line of evidence suggests that Amar Singh was a good and humane ruler. The demands made on him by the British were so many and so onerous that he could not possibly meet them. His treasury was nearly always empty. Sarabhoji's partisans set up a clamour. The British again consulted the pandits. This time they pronounced in favour of Sarabhoji. Accordingly the British deposed Amar Singh and place Sarabhoji on the throne. But this was a pretence. In the year after his accession, in 1799, Sarabhoji was 'induced' to become a pensioner of the British. He resigned to the British the administration of the kingdom in return for a pension and jurisdiction over Thanjavur town and Vallam. He is usually praised for his patronage of literature and the arts and for his own attainments. The British gave him ample means and leisure to indulge these. Pachaiyappa went to live in Thanjavur in 1784, when Tuljaji, on the throne, had three more years to live. Both Tuljaji and Amar Singh, the latter only even more, following the treaties the British had imposed on them, had onerous financial dealings with the Madras Government. Pachaiyappa acted as something like their financial agent. He was also the Company's dubash in making remittance of the annual tribute and other amount due in proper specie. He is said to have received a discount of ten or twenty per cent on these transaction. He also helped the chiefs in the southern districts in having their financial dealings with the Madras Government settled equitably. He was in high favour at the Thanjavur durbar not only for his wealth but also for his probity. He is depicted in court dress in a painting in the Thanjavur palace, from which an oil painting was made by a British artist later. In 1787, Campbell place Pachaiyappa in charge of collecting revenue in Thanjavur and ensuring the regular payment of the annual tribute Amar Singh, who was much impressed by the integrity and business ability of Pachaiyappa, also invited him to take up the task. At this time Pachaiyappa was in Madras, apparently staying at the house in what used to be called Pagoda Street, in Komalesvaranpet, now called Harris Road, which, during his life-time, was famous as the centre of his truly regal philanthropy and piety. He appears to have been led to build his residence in that quarter of Madras (According to Mr.W.S.Krishnaswami Nayudu, in writing a life of a forbear of his, swamy Naik, who live in the eighteenth century, Pachaiyappa's house adjoined Swamy Naik's and was, in 1951, when the biography appeared, numbered 26) by the example of a mentor of his, Kuzhandai Veeraperumal Pillai, a magnate of the times. Since Indian magnates recur in this account, the reader will realize that contrary to the general notion, Madras history in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was not the history of the European residents alone, but that quite a number of prominent Indians too were living there. Pachaiyappa was undoubtedly the greatest of them all, but he was by no means the only one. Veeraperumal Pillai was an intimate friend of Pachaiyappa's. He acted for Campbell, Sir Thomas Rumbold and Lord Macartney, all Governors of Madras, in their private commercial transactions. He was the proprietor of the srotriem estate of Sriharikota. He spent his income from this village of temples and in charity. He was living in a mansion on the banks of the Cooum, but on the eastern side, in sunkuvar Agraharam, in Chintadripet. The poor Cooum, so much an object of detestation today for its smelliness, was, two centuries age, venerated under the fine name of 'Kshira Nadhi', or the 'River of Milk', particularly at the spot where it runs north and thus becomes a 'uttaravahini'. Wishing to live near his friend, Pachaiyappa built his own residence by the western bank of the sacred river, in Komalesvarnpet. The locality presented a very different appearance from what it does today. There were many mansions hereabouts, where lived some of the first men of the day in Madras. These were built in the traditional Indian style. Pachaiyappa made his home virtually a temple. Pilgrims and scholars thronged it in order to benefit from his magnificent bountifulness. He spread a table every day for hundreds of the poor and often himself ate with them neither demanding nor receiving any special dishes. Every day he listened to expositions of the scriptures. Before going to bed, he also listened to bhajans. He appears to havebenn particularly fond of sekkizhar's peria puranam. He celebrated the birthdays of the sixty-three Nayanmars. He set up charities in the temple of Komalesvarar, in Komalesvaranpet. Besides, Pachaiyappa worshipped at many centres of pilgrimage and gave large benefactions to the temples. He built choultries at many places along the old pilgrim route to Rameswaram which, before the extension of the railway, passed by vedaranyam and the Thanjavur coast. He erected mathas at many places in Thanjavur district. He had special veneration for Lord Nataraja in Chidambaram. It was during this period, when he was living partly in Thanjavur and partly in Madras, that he made truly magnificent gifts to his temple. Perhaps, only the imperial Cholas before him had been so munificent. He gave large quantities of jewellery and huge amounts of money, Remarkably enough, and this is an indication of the fact that he wished to reform the abuses that had crept into society, he insisted that the degrading nautches should not be held in the temple's festivities. There was some resistance to his caveat. But, with the help of another friend of his, Manali Chinniah Mudaliar, a scion of the Manali family which has played a part in the early history of Madras, he overcame it. He built a ratha for the Lord and erected the existing ratha stand. On June 28, 1791, he initiated the temple's second annual festival, after the celebrated Ardra festival, usually held in December. This is the Ani Thriman janam. He got the trustees of the Govindaraja shrine in the temple to agree to his festival. He also attempted to reconcile them with the authorities of the Nataraja shrine. It should be remembered that the magnificent benefactor was only thirty seven years old. At about this time Pachaiyappa committed an indiscretion. For, so his second marriage should be considered. He was actuated by good motives. He had no issue from his first marriage, and he was haunted by the thought that afflicts Hindus that he had no son to perform his obsequies. That was why he married a "woman from Vedaranyam", as she is frequently called in the records. Her name was Palani Ammal. She and the first wife were at loggerheads and they lived in separate houses. She gave birth to a girl. But the child died within a few months of its mother's death which itself occurred soon after Pachaiyappa passed away in 1794. Pachaiyappa had no joy of this marriage. In his will he did not provide much of his property to either wife or his daughter. He willed it to charities. All this was in the future. In the meantime, Pachaiyappa, when asked to go to Thanjavur to help bring some order out of the chaotic financial situation there, was reluctant to do so. But William Petrie, a civil servant of rank, who subsequently acted as Governor of Madras for three months in 1807, and who had been appointed to regulate the financial matters in Thanjavur, induced him to accompany him. He then left, accompanied by a certain d'Souza. They succeeded in arranging matters in Thanjavur. He gave the Raja, in a personal transaction, a loan of a lakh of pagodas so that he could repay a debt long owing to the Company. It need hardly be said that, while temptation to chicanery and fraud abounded, Pachaiyappa would have none of it. But there were some Indians, like Subba Rao and Chinniah Mudaliar, who exploited the situation for all they were worth. They would lend huge sums to the Raja on the security of pledged villages at exorbitant price. Some of the Europeans active in Thanjavur, themselves far from paragons of rectitude, petitioned the Government, alleging that Pachaiyappa, Subba Ral and Chinniah Mudaliar wre extorting money from the Raja and that their aim was to keep him perpetually dependent on them for money. They said that the three Indians were obtaining leases of innumerable villages from the Raja on easy terms, realizing the dues from the villages in paddy, and selling the paddy at unconscionable prices. They demanded that these three be sent back to Madras to answer the charges. The obliging Madras Government ordered them to leave Thanjavur. Pachaiyappa returned to Madras and, through Petrie, protested against the charges leveled against him. He said that never had he committed any fraud and that nobody that complained against him as many had against Subba Rao and Chinniah Mudaliar. The Raja still owed him fifty thousand pagodas and, if he was not in Thanjavur, he would find it difficult to recover that loan. It was highly irregular that he should have been asked to return to Madras when, initially he had gone to Thanjavur very reluctantly and only at the repeated requests of Campbell. On his return to Madras, Pachaiyappa was dubash to a son of Robert Joseph Sulivan. As was to be expected, the official inquiry into Pachaiyappa's financial dealings in Thanjavur showed that his conduct had been irreproachable. The malice of his European detractors was thwarted, and he returned to Thanjavur. He had the more reason to do so because, when in Madras, he had suffered an attack of paralysis. It was not serious enough to incapacitate him, and he could attend to business. He though that Thanjavur's dry climate would uit him better than the moist climate of Madras. Before leaving for Thanjavur, he secured for Ayya Pillai, the son of his patron, 'Powney' Narayana Pillai, the lucrative post of dubah to Joseph Sulivan. He repaid in full measure the abounding goodness the great merchant had shown him from his early days. It was in June, 1792, that Pachaiyappa returned to Thanjavur. He resumed his banking business for the Raja.He became friends with James Strange, who was the British representative at the court as paymaster in Thanjavur. Like nearly every European who had dealings with him, Strange had the highest opinion of Pachaiyappa. His sense of gratitude for 'Powney' Narayana pillai was so strong that it was against him that he drew all his hundis on Madras. He also made him his agent in Madras, and it was through him that he made all the payments due from him to the Government and to other parties. All this made for a good income for Narayana Pillai. But illness was crowding in on Pachaiyappa.He underwent treatment for his paralytic stroke. This brought him some relief, but he began to suffer from stomach and other ailments. He realised that this end was not far off, though he was only forty years old. He went to Kumbakonam in order to complete building a choultry he had begun to erect opposite to an agraharam he had already set up. On March 22, 1794, he wrote his will. The poor man did not know it, but this will was to involve his family in protracted litigation. In this will Pachaiyappa directed that, should his health deteriorate and the worst happen, 'Powney' Narayana Pillai and his son, Ayya Pillai, should act as his testators. Out of the interest from a lakh of pagodas which he had given as loan he arected that services should be performed in the temples from Kashi to Rameswaram which he had selected. At present work was proceeding on the eastern gopura of the Chidambaram Sri Sabapathi temple with the 11,300 pagodas entrusted to Puvalur Iyan Chetty. When this sum was expended, money available over and above the lakh of pagodas which, out of his own earnings, he had set apart for "Siva dharma", should be spent on completing that gopura, whatever amount was wanted, 20,000 pagodas, 30,000 pagodas. The testators were to give his 'gurukkal' a thousand pagodas with which to build a house for himself, and another thousand the interest from which he was to use for his household expenses. He was, therefore, to be given two thousand pagodas in all. Vinayakamurthi Pillai, who had been writing his accounts for long years, was to be given a thousand pagodas with the instruction that he was to spend the interest on this sum on Siva puja. The testators should every month send interest on 1,100 pagodas to the Pandarasannidhis in Tiruvaiyar for the expenses of 'Mahesvara Puja'. Apart from the jewels given to the 'Vedaranyam woman', whom he had married as his second wife, 5,000 chakrams was to be given when her child became five of six years old for her marriage expenses. Interest on five thousand pagodas, to be put out to interest somewhere, was to be given to his sister's son, Muthiah, a 'senseless boy'. Ten thousand pagodas in cash was to be given to Ayya Pillai, the son of Narayana Pillai, and to his children. The rest o this property was to be placed under the control of Narayana Pillai, who was to be guided by the advice of Pachaiyappa's sister and first wife. The will was witnessed by Anna Gurukkal and Ramalinga Pillai.Pachaiyappa signed the will 'Ka.V.Pachaiyappan'. The letter "V" is in English, the rest in Tamil. Two days after signing this will, on March 24, Pachaiyappa wrote a letter to Narayana Pillai.He said that he was slightly better, but that Lord Siva's will was still to be known. Narayana Pillai was not to be discouraged by anything. It looked as if the Lord's grace would set every thing right. He had borrowed two thousand pagodas from Varada Pillai when he had first come to Madras. He had immediately returned a thousand pagodas. Narayana Pillai was to tell Varada Pillai that the other thousand would be returned. Even if Pachaiyappa were to pass away, the principal was to be returned with interest. This was the last letter Pachaiyappa was to write. Soon after writing the letter, Pachaiyappa wished to go to Tiruvaiyar. An old belief was that to pass away in that sacred and historic place was equal in sanctity to dying in Kashi itself. He passed away there on Monday, March 31, 1794 (in the Tamil calendar 21, Panguni, Pramadisa year on Amavasya day). Thus ended a life that was noble to the last minute. The times were disastrously out of joint. The Carnatic was a welter of decay of moral values. It was the age of the freebooter and of the marauder. The strong tyrannized over the weak, the crafty cheated the simple. Yet, in the midst of all this, Pachaiyappa did not succumb to temptation. Riches came to him, and he spent them nobly. The Chola kings apart, there has been no more splendid benefactor of religion in Tamil history. Traditionally, mighty temple gopuras were built by the monarch or the nobleman. Pachaiyappa was one of the few commoners in the history of the Tamil temple to raise, or renovate, a huge gopura and that in Chidambaram, the most sacred and sanctified of Saiva temples in Tamilnad. Pachaiyappa had an oval face, with broad eyes. He was tall in stature, with long hands that reached down to the knees, a feature considered in olden days a mark of greatness. His forehead was broad, and he had an aquiline nose. He usually wore a white muslin robe, a lace shawl thrown over the shoulders, a turban of the style customary in his time, and a fine coloured cummerbund, or girdle. On ceremonious occasions he loved to deck himself with ornaments; big ear-rings, emerald ear-drops, bangles set with diamonds and rubies, necklaces of pearls and other precious stones, several finger rings. Pachaiyappa stands ineffity, in an attitude of worship, in a niche on the southern side of the entry-way in the eastern gopura in Chidambaram. An inscription on the base identifies him.He is represented as a slender figure with a moustache standing with his hands in anjali.Subbammal stands in another niche nearby. A figure of Pachaiyappa in ceremonial dress appears in a painting of Amar Singh's durbar in the Thanjavur palace. A full-length painting was made by an English artist, Ramsay Reinagle, inLondon in 1850. Pachaiyappa lives in the hearts of the devout and of those whom his educational charities helped in the struggle of life. But it was to be wearily long years before his will could be implemented aright. Komalesvaranpet Srinivasa Pillai who, after only "Powney" Narayana Pillai, must be considered the most effective upholder of Pachaiyappa's name, fame and memory, wrote a life of him in Tamil but "in the English manner"' after gathering materials at many places. At the fiftieth anniversary of Pachaiyappa's College, Vembakkam Krishnamachariar, a Trustee, wrote a condensed translation of this into English and published it along with Tamil poems written for earlier anniversaries of Pachaiyappa. The Tamil work, very scarce even then, was republished along with the old and with new poems in 1911 by Pakkam Rajaratna Mudaliar, then Chairman of the Trustees.
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1st ACS is proud to announce the release of the 2014 Public Service Announcement - The theme is "Discover ACS". We selected this theme as not all our community, to include Soldiers and Spouses know what we do. Help ACS help the Community. http://vime Read more ... o.com/m/102321663 5-DAY RESILIENCY TRAINING: Resiliency Training for Family Members, Soldiers and DA Civilians. The entire course will be presented as a 5 Day course on Fort Stewart 25-29 Aug, 8:45 a.m.-2 p.m. ACS Bldg 87. Bounce back through Self-Awareness, Building Optimism and Connections. Advanced sign up is recommended. To sign up or for more information call Becky Sellars, (912) 767-3863. ACS OPERATING HOURS CHANGE: Effective Aug. 1, Army Community Service at Fort Stewart and Hunter Army Airfield will change their operating hours for all ACS facilities, except for the SFAC and SOS programs; which will remain the same. The change is a shift from their Thursday morning closure times (7:30 to 11:30 a.m.) from Thursdays to Fridays. For more information please call (912) 767-5058 or 767-5059.
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Sue ~ *~ JUST A LITTLE HISTORY - WE ARE A PART OF CLAN MacLEAN (McLEAN) BUT ALSO CLAN CAMPBELL ~*~ Clan Campbell is Highland Scottish clan. Historically one of the largest, most powerful and most successful of the Highland clans, their lands were in Ar Read more ... gyll and the chief of the clan became the Earl and later Duke of Argyll. History Origins The origins of Clan Campbell are uncertain. The earliest attested Campbell is Gilleasbaig of Menstrie (floruit 1260s), father of Cailean Mór, from whom the chiefs of the clan are thought to have taken their style MacCailean Mór. The byname kambel is recorded at this time. Fanciful reconstructions derive it from the French de Campo Bello, but the likely source is the caimbeul, an Early Modern Irish or Gaelic by name meaning wry mouth, crooked mouth or twisted mouth, which refers to "the man whose mouth inclined a little on one side" or a dishonest person.[3] . There is also a theory that the 'crooked mouth' idea related to the tongue spoken by Brythonic wanderers. The 'crooked mouth' was probably what is now known as Middle Welsh, and hence suggesting that the Campbell's were indeed first of Brythonic decent and not Gaelic/Scottish.[citation needed] Regarding the earlier ancestors of Clan Campbell, there is good evidence that the Campbells themselves traced their descent from an earlier kindred known as the Mac Duibne, or perhaps the Uí Duibne. It has been suggested[who?] that the family's early landholdings, around Menstrie, and in Cowal, were related to the partition of the Mormaerdom of Mentieth in 1213, and that Gilleasbuig may have been a kinsman of Mormaer Muireadhach Mór. The lands around Loch Awe, which would later form the core of their possessions, were not held at an early date. The name begins to be established in Argyll at the end of the 13th century, as followers of the Earl of Lennox, with Campbells owning lands in Kintyre and the famous warrior Cailean Mór (Great Colin) knighted (1280) and established at Loch Awe. Cailean Mór's older brother established at Strachur forming the oldest branch of Clan Campbell, see Campbell of Strachur. Between 1200 and 1500 the Campbells emerged as one of the most powerful families in Gaelic speaking Scotland, dominant in Argyll and capable of wielding a wider influence and authority in the Hebrides and western Highlands.[3] Wars of Scottish Independence The family of Colin Campbell went on to become firm supporters of King Robert the Bruce and benefited from his successes with grants of lands, titles and good marriages. They fought for the Bruce against the English at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 during the Wars of Scottish Independence. During the 14th century the Clan Campbell rapidly expanded its lands and power. This is partly explained by the loyalty of Sir Niall Campbell (Niall mac Caile), (d.1315), to the cause of Robert I of Scotland (the Bruce) – a loyalty which was rewarded with marriage to Bruce's sister Mary.[3] The family was closely associated with the Bruces and Stewarts in the time of Cailean Mór and his son Sir Niall mac Cailein. Cailean Mór was killed in battle against the Clan MacDougall, enemies of Bruce and Stewart, and Sir Niall was a staunch ally of King Robert Bruce. Cailean Mór's mother Affrica of Carrick was probably the first cousin of King Robert's mother, Marjorie, Countess of Carrick. 15th century and royal relations Descendants of Sir Duncan Campbell, 1st Lord Campbell (Donnchadh) and his wife Lady Marjorie Stewart would be descendants of Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland and Robert II Stewart, King of Scotland. Lady Marjorie Stewart, b. 1390 was the daughter of King Robert II's son, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany. This would make all descendants of Sir Duncan Campbell and Lady Marjorie Stewart descendants of Robert I Bruce and most of the early Kings of Scotland.[3] The first Lord Campbell was created in 1445. It was from the 15th century that the Campbells came to take an increasingly prominent role. The personal reign of James I of Scotland, saw that king launch a great political assault on the Albany Stewarts and their allies in the west, however Duncan Campbell, 1st lord Campbell (Donnchadh), escaped the fate of his Albany kinsmen who were all either executed or exiled.[3] Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyll (Cailean) was en-nobled as the Earl of Argyll in 1457 and later became Baron of Lorn and was also granted lands in Knapdale, signs that the Argylls were one of the major forces in Scotland. In 1493 after the forfeiture of the MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, the Campbell lords may well have viewed themselves as natural successors to the Clan Donald in terms of leadership of the Gaels of the Hebrides and western Highlands. The Campbell lordship thus remained one of the most significant bastions of Gaelic learning and culture in late medieval and early modern Scotland.[3] Battle of Knockmary, 1490, Men of the Clan Campbell and the Clan Drummond join forces to defeat the Clan Murray.[4] 16th century and clan conflicts Battle of Flodden Field, 1513, During the Anglo-Scottish Wars of the 16th century the Clan Campbell, led by Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll fought on the side of King James IV of Scotland against an English Army. Many of the powerful Earls of Scotland participated in this battle which is sometimes referred to as the Charge of the Earls.[5] Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, 1547, Later during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Campbell was among the Scottish forces who fought the English at Pinkie on 10 September 1547. Due to the large number of Scottish lives lost at this battle September 10 is remembered today in Scotland as Black Saturday.[6] Battle of Langside 1568, The chief of Clan Campbell, Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of Argyll, commanded the forces who fought for Mary, Queen of Scots against the forces of the Regent Moray, who were commanded by William Kirkcaldy of Grange. In 1567, a conflict took place between the Clan Campbell and Clan Arthur. Duncan MacArthur and his son of the Loch Awe MacArthur family, became the victims of their own success when jealousy of their power drove neighbours to drown them in Loch Awe during a skirmish with the Clan Campbell. In the archives of Inveraray Castle a charter dated 1567 confirms that a pardon was granted to the Campbells of Inverawe for the "drowning of Clan Arthur". It is believed that the MacArthurs trying to defend themselves were driven into the loch. Centuries later in the 1970s an ancient sword was unearthed on the shore of the loch.[7][8] Battle of Glenlivet, 1594, Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll's forces of Clan Campbell, Clan Stewart of Atholl, Clan Forbes and the Chattan Confederation of Clan Mackintosh fought against the Earl of Huntly who was supported by the Clan Gordon, Clan Comyn and the Clan Cameron.[9] 17th century and Civil War During the Civil War, the Clan Campbell fought as Covenanters. In 1644, the Clan Irvine, who were staunch royalist supporters, found themselves surrounded by Covenanter clans. The Irvine's Drum Castle was sacked on May 2, 1644 by the Clan Campbell. A chair with Drum symbols, now in the Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, is believed to have been taken from Drum Castle either in 1644 by the Campbells or in 1640 when a previous raid was carried out by General Robert Monro. Battle of Inverlochy (1645), The Scottish Argyll Covenanter forces of Clan Campbell led by Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll were defeated by the Royalist forces of James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose mainly made up from Clan MacDonald, Clan MacLean and other MacDonald allies from Ireland. After the Battle of Inverlochy in 1645 James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose laid siege to Castle Campbell but was unable to beat the Clan Campbell defenders and failed to take the castle.[10] In 1646, the Clan Campbell massacred the Clan Lamont in what became known as the Dunoon Massacre.[11] In 1647, the Argyll government troops of Clan Campbell, led by Stuart A Campbell, attacked and laid siege to Duart Castle of the Clan MacLean, but they were defeated and driven off by the Royalist troops of the Clan MacLean.[12] Battle of Stirling (1648), The forces of Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll were defeated by the forces of Sir George Munro, 1st of Newmore who supported the Earl of Lanerick. Among Argyll's dead was William Campbell of Glenfalloch killed in action.[13][14] In 1672, debt forced George Sinclair, 6th Earl of Caithness to resign his titles and estates in favour of Sir John Campbell.[15] Campbell took possession of the estates on Sinclair's death in May 1676, and was created earl of Caithness in June the following year.[16] Sinclair's heir, George Sinclair of Keiss disputed the claim and seized the land in 1678.[16] Battle of Altimarlech, 13 July 1680, Fought between the Clan Campbell and the Clan Sinclair. The Campbells were victorious.[16] Legend has it that so many Sinclairs were killed that the Campbells were able to cross the river without getting their feet wet.[16] Having failed to regain his inheritance by force, Sinclair of Keiss then turned to the law. He took his place as Earl of Caithness on 15 July 1681, and his lands were restored on 23 September.[16] Campbell was made Earl of Breadalbane by way of compensation.[16] In 1678 Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, son of the Marquess of Argyll, successfully invaded the Clan MacLean lands on the Isle of Mull and garrisons Duart Castle. Later in 1691 Duart Castle was surrendered by the Clan MacLean to the chief of Clan Campbell, Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll. In 1692, 78 unarmed MacDonalds were murdered in the Massacre of Glencoe when a government initiative to suppress Jacobitism was entangled in the long running feud between Clan MacDonald and Clan Campbell. The slaughter of the MacDonalds at the hands of the soldiers, led by Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, after enjoying their hospitality for over a week was a major affront of Scottish Law and Highland tradition. The majority of soldiers were not Campbells, but a roll call from a few months before included six Campbells in addition to Cpt. Robt. Campbell: Corporal Achibald Campbell, Private Archibald Campbell (elder), Private Donald Campbell (younger), Private Archibald Campbell (younger), Private James Campbell, Private Donald Campbell (elder), and Private Duncan Campbell. Retrieved from: Earl of Argyll's Regiment of Foot 18th century and Jacobite Uprisings 1715 to 1719 Jacobite Rising On 23 October 1715, chief John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll having learned that a detachment of rebels was passing by Castle Campbell, towards Dunfermline, sent out a body of cavalry which came up with the party and defeated it, taking a number of gentlemen prisoners, with the damage of one dragoon wounded on the cheek and one horse slightly injured. A month later the British government forces of Clan Campbell fought and defeated the Jacobites at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715. However there were in fact a small number Campbells who took the side of the Jacobites led by the son of Campbell of Glenlyon whose father had commanded the government troops at the Massacre of Glencoe 22 years earlier. The two young men "buried the hatchet" and swore to be brothers in arms, fighting side by side in the Sheriffmuir. However the British government forces led by the Argyll Campbells defeated the Jacobites.[18] The Black Watch In 1725 six Independent Black Watch companies were formed. Three from Clan Campbell, one from Clan Fraser, one from Clan Munro and one from Clan Grant. These companies were known by the name Reicudan Dhu, or Black Watch. Taking advantage of the partisan nature and warrior instincts of the highlanders, these men were authorised to wear the kilt and to bear arms, thus it was not difficult to find recruits. The regiment was then officially known as the 42nd Regiment of Foot. 1745 to 1746 Jacobite Rising During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1745 to 1746 the Clan Campbell continued their support for the British Government. They fought against the rebel Jacobites at the Battle of Falkirk (1746) where government forces were defeated. However shortly afterwards the Clan Campbell held out during the Siege of Fort William. The Jacobites could not defeat the Campbell defenders who had been well supplied. Eventually the Campbells sent out their own force from Fort William who defeated the besieging Jacobites and captured their siege cannons.[19] Soon afterwards men of the Clan Campbell who formed part of Loudon's Highlanders Regiment helped to finally defeat the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Castles Inveraray Castle in Argyll is the current seat of the Chief of Clan Campbell. Castle Campbell or Castle Gloom was the seat of the chief of Clan Campbell until 1654 when they moved to Inveraray Castle. Innis Chonnell one of the earliest Clan Campbell castles. Kilchurn Castle was seat of the Campbell of Glenorchy and Breadalbane branch of the clan Edinample Castle was another seat of the Campbell of Glenorchy branch of the clan. Finlarig Castle was another seat of the Campbell of Breadalbane branch of the clan. Saddell Castle was owned by the Campbells from the late 17th century onwards. Torosay Castle built by John Campbell of Possil in 1858. Taymouth Castle built by the Campbells of Breadalbane in the 19th century. Auchinbreck Castle Dismantled. Built by the Campbells of Kilmichael Glassary, later renamed of Auchinbreck. Sween Castle was granted to Colin Campbell in 1481 when he became the first Earl of Argyll. Was captured by the MacDonalds in 1647. Dunoon Castle In 1334, Colin Campbell made Keeper of Dunoon Castle. Achallader Castle was seat of Sir Duncan Campbell of Glen Orchy which he acquired in 1590. Carnasserie Castle has belonged to the Clan Campbell since the 16th century. Ardkinglas Castle Kilmartin Castle Clan profile Origin of the name: Cam Beul (Gaelic for "Crooked mouth") (Surname) Other Gaelic names: Caimbeulach (Singular) &O Duibhne (Collective) Motto: Ne Obliviscaris (Latin for "Forget Not") Slogan: "Cruachan!" (from the mountain north of Loch Awe, overlooking the bulk of the Campbell lands in Argyll) Pipe music: "Baile Inneraora" (The Campbells Are Coming) Plant badge: Bog Myrtle Lands: Campbell lands were scattered across Angus, Ayrshire (Loudoun), Clackmannan (Argyll), Nairnshire (Cawdor) Perthshire, Seahouses (Northumberland). Tartans Although mills produce many fabrics based on the Campbell tartan, the Clan Chief recognizes only four: Campbell:[20] More commonly known as the Black Watch tartan or the Government Sett. The Black Watch, first raised in 1695, policed the Black Trade of cattle smuggling in the Highlands, and then later in 1715/1725 after the act of union in 1707, became what was the first Highland Regiment in the British Army.[17] All Campbell tartans are based upon the Black Watch tartan, as are many clan tartans. The tartan was used, and is in current use, by several military units throughout the Commonwealth.[17] Campbell of Breadalbane:[20] This tartan may be worn by Campbells of the Breadalbane, or Glenorchy branches.[20] Campbell of Cawdor:[20] This tartan may be worn by members of the Campbell of Cawdor branch.[20] Campbell of Loudoun:[20] This tartan may be worn by members of the Campbell of Loudoun branch.[20] The Sixth Duke of Argyll added a white line to his tartan to distinguish himself as Clan Chief. He was the only member of the family to do so, but the tartan has persisted as "Campbell of Argyll". Campbell of Argyll, as with any other tartan not listed above, is not recognized as official.[21] Chief The most high, potent and noble prince his Grace Torquhil Ian Campbell, 13th Duke of Argyll, Marquess of Kintyre and Lorne, Earl of Argyll, Campbell and Cowal, Viscount Lochawe and Glenyla, Lord Campbell, Lorne, Kintyre, Inveraray, Mull, Morven and Tyrie in the peerage of Scotland, Baron Sundbridge of Coombank and Baron Hamilton of Hameldon in the peerage of Great Britain, 6th Duke of Argyll in the peerage of the United Kingdom, Baronet of Nova Scotia, Hereditary Master of the Royal Household in Scotland, Hereditary Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland, Hereditary Keeper of the royal castles of Dunoon, Carrick Castle, Dunstaffnage Castle and Tarbet, Admiral of the Western coasts and isles, and Chief of the Honorable Clan Campbell; The chief's Gaelic title is MacCailein Mor ('Son of Colin the Great'). The Chief is also the hereditary High Sheriff of Argyllshire, Member Queen's Body Guard for Scotland and Member Royal Company of Archers.[22] Clan Campbell is Highland Scottish clan. Historically one of the largest, most powerful and most successful of the Highland clans, their lands were in Argyll and the chief of the clan became the Earl and later Duke of Argyll. History Origins The origins of Clan Campbell are uncertain. The earliest attested Campbell is Gilleasbaig of Menstrie (floruit 1260s), father of Cailean Mór, from whom the chiefs of the clan are thought to have taken their style MacCailean Mór. The byname kambel is recorded at this time. Fanciful reconstructions derive it from the French de Campo Bello, but the likely source is the caimbeul, an Early Modern Irish or Gaelic by name meaning wry mouth, crooked mouth or twisted mouth, which refers to "the man whose mouth inclined a little on one side" or a dishonest person.[3] . There is also a theory that the 'crooked mouth' idea related to the tongue spoken by Brythonic wanderers. The 'crooked mouth' was probably what is now known as Middle Welsh, and hence suggesting that the Campbell's were indeed first of Brythonic decent and not Gaelic/Scottish.[citation needed] Regarding the earlier ancestors of Clan Campbell, there is good evidence that the Campbells themselves traced their descent from an earlier kindred known as the Mac Duibne, or perhaps the Uí Duibne. It has been suggested[who?] that the family's early landholdings, around Menstrie, and in Cowal, were related to the partition of the Mormaerdom of Mentieth in 1213, and that Gilleasbuig may have been a kinsman of Mormaer Muireadhach Mór. The lands around Loch Awe, which would later form the core of their possessions, were not held at an early date. The name begins to be established in Argyll at the end of the 13th century, as followers of the Earl of Lennox, with Campbells owning lands in Kintyre and the famous warrior Cailean Mór (Great Colin) knighted (1280) and established at Loch Awe. Cailean Mór's older brother established at Strachur forming the oldest branch of Clan Campbell, see Campbell of Strachur. Between 1200 and 1500 the Campbells emerged as one of the most powerful families in Gaelic speaking Scotland, dominant in Argyll and capable of wielding a wider influence and authority in the Hebrides and western Highlands.[3] Wars of Scottish Independence The family of Colin Campbell went on to become firm supporters of King Robert the Bruce and benefited from his successes with grants of lands, titles and good marriages. They fought for the Bruce against the English at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 during the Wars of Scottish Independence. During the 14th century the Clan Campbell rapidly expanded its lands and power. This is partly explained by the loyalty of Sir Niall Campbell (Niall mac Caile), (d.1315), to the cause of Robert I of Scotland (the Bruce) – a loyalty which was rewarded with marriage to Bruce's sister Mary.[3] The family was closely associated with the Bruces and Stewarts in the time of Cailean Mór and his son Sir Niall mac Cailein. Cailean Mór was killed in battle against the Clan MacDougall, enemies of Bruce and Stewart, and Sir Niall was a staunch ally of King Robert Bruce. Cailean Mór's mother Affrica of Carrick was probably the first cousin of King Robert's mother, Marjorie, Countess of Carrick. 15th century and royal relations Descendants of Sir Duncan Campbell, 1st Lord Campbell (Donnchadh) and his wife Lady Marjorie Stewart would be descendants of Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland and Robert II Stewart, King of Scotland. Lady Marjorie Stewart, b. 1390 was the daughter of King Robert II's son, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany. This would make all descendants of Sir Duncan Campbell and Lady Marjorie Stewart descendants of Robert I Bruce and most of the early Kings of Scotland.[3] The first Lord Campbell was created in 1445. It was from the 15th century that the Campbells came to take an increasingly prominent role. The personal reign of James I of Scotland, saw that king launch a great political assault on the Albany Stewarts and their allies in the west, however Duncan Campbell, 1st lord Campbell (Donnchadh), escaped the fate of his Albany kinsmen who were all either executed or exiled.[3] Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyll (Cailean) was en-nobled as the Earl of Argyll in 1457 and later became Baron of Lorn and was also granted lands in Knapdale, signs that the Argylls were one of the major forces in Scotland. In 1493 after the forfeiture of the MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, the Campbell lords may well have viewed themselves as natural successors to the Clan Donald in terms of leadership of the Gaels of the Hebrides and western Highlands. The Campbell lordship thus remained one of the most significant bastions of Gaelic learning and culture in late medieval and early modern Scotland.[3] Battle of Knockmary, 1490, Men of the Clan Campbell and the Clan Drummond join forces to defeat the Clan Murray.[4] 16th century and clan conflicts Battle of Flodden Field, 1513, During the Anglo-Scottish Wars of the 16th century the Clan Campbell, led by Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll fought on the side of King James IV of Scotland against an English Army. Many of the powerful Earls of Scotland participated in this battle which is sometimes referred to as the Charge of the Earls.[5] Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, 1547, Later during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Campbell was among the Scottish forces who fought the English at Pinkie on 10 September 1547. Due to the large number of Scottish lives lost at this battle September 10 is remembered today in Scotland as Black Saturday.[6] Battle of Langside 1568, The chief of Clan Campbell, Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of Argyll, commanded the forces who fought for Mary, Queen of Scots against the forces of the Regent Moray, who were commanded by William Kirkcaldy of Grange. In 1567, a conflict took place between the Clan Campbell and Clan Arthur. Duncan MacArthur and his son of the Loch Awe MacArthur family, became the victims of their own success when jealousy of their power drove neighbours to drown them in Loch Awe during a skirmish with the Clan Campbell. In the archives of Inveraray Castle a charter dated 1567 confirms that a pardon was granted to the Campbells of Inverawe for the "drowning of Clan Arthur". It is believed that the MacArthurs trying to defend themselves were driven into the loch. Centuries later in the 1970s an ancient sword was unearthed on the shore of the loch.[7][8] Battle of Glenlivet, 1594, Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll's forces of Clan Campbell, Clan Stewart of Atholl, Clan Forbes and the Chattan Confederation of Clan Mackintosh fought against the Earl of Huntly who was supported by the Clan Gordon, Clan Comyn and the Clan Cameron.[9] 17th century and Civil War During the Civil War, the Clan Campbell fought as Covenanters. In 1644, the Clan Irvine, who were staunch royalist supporters, found themselves surrounded by Covenanter clans. The Irvine's Drum Castle was sacked on May 2, 1644 by the Clan Campbell. A chair with Drum symbols, now in the Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, is believed to have been taken from Drum Castle either in 1644 by the Campbells or in 1640 when a previous raid was carried out by General Robert Monro. Battle of Inverlochy (1645), The Scottish Argyll Covenanter forces of Clan Campbell led by Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll were defeated by the Royalist forces of James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose mainly made up from Clan MacDonald, Clan MacLean and other MacDonald allies from Ireland. After the Battle of Inverlochy in 1645 James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose laid siege to Castle Campbell but was unable to beat the Clan Campbell defenders and failed to take the castle.[10] In 1646, the Clan Campbell massacred the Clan Lamont in what became known as the Dunoon Massacre.[11] In 1647, the Argyll government troops of Clan Campbell, led by Stuart A Campbell, attacked and laid siege to Duart Castle of the Clan MacLean, but they were defeated and driven off by the Royalist troops of the Clan MacLean.[12] Battle of Stirling (1648), The forces of Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll were defeated by the forces of Sir George Munro, 1st of Newmore who supported the Earl of Lanerick. Among Argyll's dead was William Campbell of Glenfalloch killed in action.[13][14] In 1672, debt forced George Sinclair, 6th Earl of Caithness to resign his titles and estates in favour of Sir John Campbell.[15] Campbell took possession of the estates on Sinclair's death in May 1676, and was created earl of Caithness in June the following year.[16] Sinclair's heir, George Sinclair of Keiss disputed the claim and seized the land in 1678.[16] Battle of Altimarlech, 13 July 1680, Fought between the Clan Campbell and the Clan Sinclair. The Campbells were victorious.[16] Legend has it that so many Sinclairs were killed that the Campbells were able to cross the river without getting their feet wet.[16] Having failed to regain his inheritance by force, Sinclair of Keiss then turned to the law. He took his place as Earl of Caithness on 15 July 1681, and his lands were restored on 23 September.[16] Campbell was made Earl of Breadalbane by way of compensation.[16] In 1678 Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, son of the Marquess of Argyll, successfully invaded the Clan MacLean lands on the Isle of Mull and garrisons Duart Castle. Later in 1691 Duart Castle was surrendered by the Clan MacLean to the chief of Clan Campbell, Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll. In 1692, 78 unarmed MacDonalds were murdered in the Massacre of Glencoe when a government initiative to suppress Jacobitism was entangled in the long running feud between Clan MacDonald and Clan Campbell. The slaughter of the MacDonalds at the hands of the soldiers, led by Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, after enjoying their hospitality for over a week was a major affront of Scottish Law and Highland tradition. The majority of soldiers were not Campbells, but a roll call from a few months before included six Campbells in addition to Cpt. Robt. Campbell: Corporal Achibald Campbell, Private Archibald Campbell (elder), Private Donald Campbell (younger), Private Archibald Campbell (younger), Private James Campbell, Private Donald Campbell (elder), and Private Duncan Campbell. Retrieved from: Earl of Argyll's Regiment of Foot 18th century and Jacobite Uprisings 1715 to 1719 Jacobite Rising On 23 October 1715, chief John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll having learned that a detachment of rebels was passing by Castle Campbell, towards Dunfermline, sent out a body of cavalry which came up with the party and defeated it, taking a number of gentlemen prisoners, with the damage of one dragoon wounded on the cheek and one horse slightly injured. A month later the British government forces of Clan Campbell fought and defeated the Jacobites at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715. However there were in fact a small number Campbells who took the side of the Jacobites led by the son of Campbell of Glenlyon whose father had commanded the government troops at the Massacre of Glencoe 22 years earlier. The two young men "buried the hatchet" and swore to be brothers in arms, fighting side by side in the Sheriffmuir. However the British government forces led by the Argyll Campbells defeated the Jacobites.[18] The Black Watch In 1725 six Independent Black Watch companies were formed. Three from Clan Campbell, one from Clan Fraser, one from Clan Munro and one from Clan Grant. These companies were known by the name Reicudan Dhu, or Black Watch. Taking advantage of the partisan nature and warrior instincts of the highlanders, these men were authorised to wear the kilt and to bear arms, thus it was not difficult to find recruits. The regiment was then officially known as the 42nd Regiment of Foot. 1745 to 1746 Jacobite Rising During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1745 to 1746 the Clan Campbell continued their support for the British Government. They fought against the rebel Jacobites at the Battle of Falkirk (1746) where government forces were defeated. However shortly afterwards the Clan Campbell held out during the Siege of Fort William. The Jacobites could not defeat the Campbell defenders who had been well supplied. Eventually the Campbells sent out their own force from Fort William who defeated the besieging Jacobites and captured their siege cannons.[19] Soon afterwards men of the Clan Campbell who formed part of Loudon's Highlanders Regiment helped to finally defeat the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Castles Inveraray Castle in Argyll is the current seat of the Chief of Clan Campbell. Castle Campbell or Castle Gloom was the seat of the chief of Clan Campbell until 1654 when they moved to Inveraray Castle. Innis Chonnell one of the earliest Clan Campbell castles. Kilchurn Castle was seat of the Campbell of Glenorchy and Breadalbane branch of the clan Edinample Castle was another seat of the Campbell of Glenorchy branch of the clan. Finlarig Castle was another seat of the Campbell of Breadalbane branch of the clan. Saddell Castle was owned by the Campbells from the late 17th century onwards. Torosay Castle built by John Campbell of Possil in 1858. Taymouth Castle built by the Campbells of Breadalbane in the 19th century. Auchinbreck Castle Dismantled. Built by the Campbells of Kilmichael Glassary, later renamed of Auchinbreck. Sween Castle was granted to Colin Campbell in 1481 when he became the first Earl of Argyll. Was captured by the MacDonalds in 1647. Dunoon Castle In 1334, Colin Campbell made Keeper of Dunoon Castle. Achallader Castle was seat of Sir Duncan Campbell of Glen Orchy which he acquired in 1590. Carnasserie Castle has belonged to the Clan Campbell since the 16th century. Ardkinglas Castle Kilmartin Castle Clan profile Origin of the name: Cam Beul (Gaelic for "Crooked mouth") (Surname) Other Gaelic names: Caimbeulach (Singular) &O Duibhne (Collective) Motto: Ne Obliviscaris (Latin for "Forget Not") Slogan: "Cruachan!" (from the mountain north of Loch Awe, overlooking the bulk of the Campbell lands in Argyll) Pipe music: "Baile Inneraora" (The Campbells Are Coming) Plant badge: Bog Myrtle Lands: Campbell lands were scattered across Angus, Ayrshire (Loudoun), Clackmannan (Argyll), Nairnshire (Cawdor) Perthshire, Seahouses (Northumberland). Tartans Although mills produce many fabrics based on the Campbell tartan, the Clan Chief recognizes only four: Campbell:[20] More commonly known as the Black Watch tartan or the Government Sett. The Black Watch, first raised in 1695, policed the Black Trade of cattle smuggling in the Highlands, and then later in 1715/1725 after the act of union in 1707, became what was the first Highland Regiment in the British Army.[17] All Campbell tartans are based upon the Black Watch tartan, as are many clan tartans. The tartan was used, and is in current use, by several military units throughout the Commonwealth.[17] Campbell of Breadalbane:[20] This tartan may be worn by Campbells of the Breadalbane, or Glenorchy branches.[20] Campbell of Cawdor:[20] This tartan may be worn by members of the Campbell of Cawdor branch.[20] Campbell of Loudoun:[20] This tartan may be worn by members of the Campbell of Loudoun branch.[20] The Sixth Duke of Argyll added a white line to his tartan to distinguish himself as Clan Chief. He was the only member of the family to do so, but the tartan has persisted as "Campbell of Argyll". Campbell of Argyll, as with any other tartan not listed above, is not recognized as official.[21] Chief The most high, potent and noble prince his Grace Torquhil Ian Campbell, 13th Duke of Argyll, Marquess of Kintyre and Lorne, Earl of Argyll, Campbell and Cowal, Viscount Lochawe and Glenyla, Lord Campbell, Lorne, Kintyre, Inveraray, Mull, Morven and Tyrie in the peerage of Scotland, Baron Sundbridge of Coombank and Baron Hamilton of Hameldon in the peerage of Great Britain, 6th Duke of Argyll in the peerage of the United Kingdom, Baronet of Nova Scotia, Hereditary Master of the Royal Household in Scotland, Hereditary Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland, Hereditary Keeper of the royal castles of Dunoon, Carrick Castle, Dunstaffnage Castle and Tarbet, Admiral of the Western coasts and isles, and Chief of the Honorable Clan Campbell; The chief's Gaelic title is MacCailein Mor ('Son of Colin the Great'). The Chief is also the hereditary High Sheriff of Argyllshire, Member Queen's Body Guard for Scotland and Member Royal Company of Archers.[22] Clan Campbell is Highland Scottish clan. Historically one of the largest, most powerful and most successful of the Highland clans, their lands were in Argyll and the chief of the clan became the Earl and later Duke of Argyll. History Origins The origins of Clan Campbell are uncertain. The earliest attested Campbell is Gilleasbaig of Menstrie (floruit 1260s), father of Cailean Mór, from whom the chiefs of the clan are thought to have taken their style MacCailean Mór. The byname kambel is recorded at this time. Fanciful reconstructions derive it from the French de Campo Bello, but the likely source is the caimbeul, an Early Modern Irish or Gaelic by name meaning wry mouth, crooked mouth or twisted mouth, which refers to "the man whose mouth inclined a little on one side" or a dishonest person.[3] . There is also a theory that the 'crooked mouth' idea related to the tongue spoken by Brythonic wanderers. The 'crooked mouth' was probably what is now known as Middle Welsh, and hence suggesting that the Campbell's were indeed first of Brythonic decent and not Gaelic/Scottish.[citation needed] Regarding the earlier ancestors of Clan Campbell, there is good evidence that the Campbells themselves traced their descent from an earlier kindred known as the Mac Duibne, or perhaps the Uí Duibne. It has been suggested[who?] that the family's early landholdings, around Menstrie, and in Cowal, were related to the partition of the Mormaerdom of Mentieth in 1213, and that Gilleasbuig may have been a kinsman of Mormaer Muireadhach Mór. The lands around Loch Awe, which would later form the core of their possessions, were not held at an early date. The name begins to be established in Argyll at the end of the 13th century, as followers of the Earl of Lennox, with Campbells owning lands in Kintyre and the famous warrior Cailean Mór (Great Colin) knighted (1280) and established at Loch Awe. Cailean Mór's older brother established at Strachur forming the oldest branch of Clan Campbell, see Campbell of Strachur. Between 1200 and 1500 the Campbells emerged as one of the most powerful families in Gaelic speaking Scotland, dominant in Argyll and capable of wielding a wider influence and authority in the Hebrides and western Highlands.[3] Wars of Scottish Independence The family of Colin Campbell went on to become firm supporters of King Robert the Bruce and benefited from his successes with grants of lands, titles and good marriages. They fought for the Bruce against the English at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 during the Wars of Scottish Independence. During the 14th century the Clan Campbell rapidly expanded its lands and power. This is partly explained by the loyalty of Sir Niall Campbell (Niall mac Caile), (d.1315), to the cause of Robert I of Scotland (the Bruce) – a loyalty which was rewarded with marriage to Bruce's sister Mary.[3] The family was closely associated with the Bruces and Stewarts in the time of Cailean Mór and his son Sir Niall mac Cailein. Cailean Mór was killed in battle against the Clan MacDougall, enemies of Bruce and Stewart, and Sir Niall was a staunch ally of King Robert Bruce. Cailean Mór's mother Affrica of Carrick was probably the first cousin of King Robert's mother, Marjorie, Countess of Carrick. 15th century and royal relations Descendants of Sir Duncan Campbell, 1st Lord Campbell (Donnchadh) and his wife Lady Marjorie Stewart would be descendants of Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland and Robert II Stewart, King of Scotland. Lady Marjorie Stewart, b. 1390 was the daughter of King Robert II's son, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany. This would make all descendants of Sir Duncan Campbell and Lady Marjorie Stewart descendants of Robert I Bruce and most of the early Kings of Scotland.[3] The first Lord Campbell was created in 1445. It was from the 15th century that the Campbells came to take an increasingly prominent role. The personal reign of James I of Scotland, saw that king launch a great political assault on the Albany Stewarts and their allies in the west, however Duncan Campbell, 1st lord Campbell (Donnchadh), escaped the fate of his Albany kinsmen who were all either executed or exiled.[3] Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyll (Cailean) was en-nobled as the Earl of Argyll in 1457 and later became Baron of Lorn and was also granted lands in Knapdale, signs that the Argylls were one of the major forces in Scotland. In 1493 after the forfeiture of the MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, the Campbell lords may well have viewed themselves as natural successors to the Clan Donald in terms of leadership of the Gaels of the Hebrides and western Highlands. The Campbell lordship thus remained one of the most significant bastions of Gaelic learning and culture in late medieval and early modern Scotland.[3] Battle of Knockmary, 1490, Men of the Clan Campbell and the Clan Drummond join forces to defeat the Clan Murray.[4] 16th century and clan conflicts Battle of Flodden Field, 1513, During the Anglo-Scottish Wars of the 16th century the Clan Campbell, led by Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll fought on the side of King James IV of Scotland against an English Army. Many of the powerful Earls of Scotland participated in this battle which is sometimes referred to as the Charge of the Earls.[5] Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, 1547, Later during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Campbell was among the Scottish forces who fought the English at Pinkie on 10 September 1547. Due to the large number of Scottish lives lost at this battle September 10 is remembered today in Scotland as Black Saturday.[6] Battle of Langside 1568, The chief of Clan Campbell, Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of Argyll, commanded the forces who fought for Mary, Queen of Scots against the forces of the Regent Moray, who were commanded by William Kirkcaldy of Grange. In 1567, a conflict took place between the Clan Campbell and Clan Arthur. Duncan MacArthur and his son of the Loch Awe MacArthur family, became the victims of their own success when jealousy of their power drove neighbours to drown them in Loch Awe during a skirmish with the Clan Campbell. In the archives of Inveraray Castle a charter dated 1567 confirms that a pardon was granted to the Campbells of Inverawe for the "drowning of Clan Arthur". It is believed that the MacArthurs trying to defend themselves were driven into the loch. Centuries later in the 1970s an ancient sword was unearthed on the shore of the loch.[7][8] Battle of Glenlivet, 1594, Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll's forces of Clan Campbell, Clan Stewart of Atholl, Clan Forbes and the Chattan Confederation of Clan Mackintosh fought against the Earl of Huntly who was supported by the Clan Gordon, Clan Comyn and the Clan Cameron.[9] 17th century and Civil War During the Civil War, the Clan Campbell fought as Covenanters. In 1644, the Clan Irvine, who were staunch royalist supporters, found themselves surrounded by Covenanter clans. The Irvine's Drum Castle was sacked on May 2, 1644 by the Clan Campbell. A chair with Drum symbols, now in the Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, is believed to have been taken from Drum Castle either in 1644 by the Campbells or in 1640 when a previous raid was carried out by General Robert Monro. Battle of Inverlochy (1645), The Scottish Argyll Covenanter forces of Clan Campbell led by Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll were defeated by the Royalist forces of James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose mainly made up from Clan MacDonald, Clan MacLean and other MacDonald allies from Ireland. After the Battle of Inverlochy in 1645 James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose laid siege to Castle Campbell but was unable to beat the Clan Campbell defenders and failed to take the castle.[10] In 1646, the Clan Campbell massacred the Clan Lamont in what became known as the Dunoon Massacre.[11] In 1647, the Argyll government troops of Clan Campbell, led by Stuart A Campbell, attacked and laid siege to Duart Castle of the Clan MacLean, but they were defeated and driven off by the Royalist troops of the Clan MacLean.[12] Battle of Stirling (1648), The forces of Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll were defeated by the forces of Sir George Munro, 1st of Newmore who supported the Earl of Lanerick. Among Argyll's dead was William Campbell of Glenfalloch killed in action.[13][14] In 1672, debt forced George Sinclair, 6th Earl of Caithness to resign his titles and estates in favour of Sir John Campbell.[15] Campbell took possession of the estates on Sinclair's death in May 1676, and was created earl of Caithness in June the following year.[16] Sinclair's heir, George Sinclair of Keiss disputed the claim and seized the land in 1678.[16] Battle of Altimarlech, 13 July 1680, Fought between the Clan Campbell and the Clan Sinclair. The Campbells were victorious.[16] Legend has it that so many Sinclairs were killed that the Campbells were able to cross the river without getting their feet wet.[16] Having failed to regain his inheritance by force, Sinclair of Keiss then turned to the law. He took his place as Earl of Caithness on 15 July 1681, and his lands were restored on 23 September.[16] Campbell was made Earl of Breadalbane by way of compensation.[16] In 1678 Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, son of the Marquess of Argyll, successfully invaded the Clan MacLean lands on the Isle of Mull and garrisons Duart Castle. Later in 1691 Duart Castle was surrendered by the Clan MacLean to the chief of Clan Campbell, Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll. In 1692, 78 unarmed MacDonalds were murdered in the Massacre of Glencoe when a government initiative to suppress Jacobitism was entangled in the long running feud between Clan MacDonald and Clan Campbell. The slaughter of the MacDonalds at the hands of the soldiers, led by Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, after enjoying their hospitality for over a week was a major affront of Scottish Law and Highland tradition. The majority of soldiers were not Campbells, but a roll call from a few months before included six Campbells in addition to Cpt. Robt. Campbell: Corporal Achibald Campbell, Private Archibald Campbell (elder), Private Donald Campbell (younger), Private Archibald Campbell (younger), Private James Campbell, Private Donald Campbell (elder), and Private Duncan Campbell. Retrieved from: Earl of Argyll's Regiment of Foot 18th century and Jacobite Uprisings 1715 to 1719 Jacobite Rising On 23 October 1715, chief John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll having learned that a detachment of rebels was passing by Castle Campbell, towards Dunfermline, sent out a body of cavalry which came up with the party and defeated it, taking a number of gentlemen prisoners, with the damage of one dragoon wounded on the cheek and one horse slightly injured. A month later the British government forces of Clan Campbell fought and defeated the Jacobites at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715. However there were in fact a small number Campbells who took the side of the Jacobites led by the son of Campbell of Glenlyon whose father had commanded the government troops at the Massacre of Glencoe 22 years earlier. The two young men "buried the hatchet" and swore to be brothers in arms, fighting side by side in the Sheriffmuir. However the British government forces led by the Argyll Campbells defeated the Jacobites.[18] The Black Watch In 1725 six Independent Black Watch companies were formed. Three from Clan Campbell, one from Clan Fraser, one from Clan Munro and one from Clan Grant. These companies were known by the name Reicudan Dhu, or Black Watch. Taking advantage of the partisan nature and warrior instincts of the highlanders, these men were authorised to wear the kilt and to bear arms, thus it was not difficult to find recruits. The regiment was then officially known as the 42nd Regiment of Foot. 1745 to 1746 Jacobite Rising During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1745 to 1746 the Clan Campbell continued their support for the British Government. They fought against the rebel Jacobites at the Battle of Falkirk (1746) where government forces were defeated. However shortly afterwards the Clan Campbell held out during the Siege of Fort William. The Jacobites could not defeat the Campbell defenders who had been well supplied. Eventually the Campbells sent out their own force from Fort William who defeated the besieging Jacobites and captured their siege cannons.[19] Soon afterwards men of the Clan Campbell who formed part of Loudon's Highlanders Regiment helped to finally defeat the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Castles Inveraray Castle in Argyll is the current seat of the Chief of Clan Campbell. Castle Campbell or Castle Gloom was the seat of the chief of Clan Campbell until 1654 when they moved to Inveraray Castle. Innis Chonnell one of the earliest Clan Campbell castles. Kilchurn Castle was seat of the Campbell of Glenorchy and Breadalbane branch of the clan Edinample Castle was another seat of the Campbell of Glenorchy branch of the clan. Finlarig Castle was another seat of the Campbell of Breadalbane branch of the clan. Saddell Castle was owned by the Campbells from the late 17th century onwards. Torosay Castle built by John Campbell of Possil in 1858. Taymouth Castle built by the Campbells of Breadalbane in the 19th century. Auchinbreck Castle Dismantled. Built by the Campbells of Kilmichael Glassary, later renamed of Auchinbreck. Sween Castle was granted to Colin Campbell in 1481 when he became the first Earl of Argyll. Was captured by the MacDonalds in 1647. Dunoon Castle In 1334, Colin Campbell made Keeper of Dunoon Castle. Achallader Castle was seat of Sir Duncan Campbell of Glen Orchy which he acquired in 1590. Carnasserie Castle has belonged to the Clan Campbell since the 16th century. Ardkinglas Castle Kilmartin Castle Clan profile Origin of the name: Cam Beul (Gaelic for "Crooked mouth") (Surname) Other Gaelic names: Caimbeulach (Singular) &O Duibhne (Collective) Motto: Ne Obliviscaris (Latin for "Forget Not") Slogan: "Cruachan!" (from the mountain north of Loch Awe, overlooking the bulk of the Campbell lands in Argyll) Pipe music: "Baile Inneraora" (The Campbells Are Coming) Plant badge: Bog Myrtle Lands: Campbell lands were scattered across Angus, Ayrshire (Loudoun), Clackmannan (Argyll), Nairnshire (Cawdor) Perthshire, Seahouses (Northumberland). Tartans Although mills produce many fabrics based on the Campbell tartan, the Clan Chief recognizes only four: Campbell:[20] More commonly known as the Black Watch tartan or the Government Sett. The Black Watch, first raised in 1695, policed the Black Trade of cattle smuggling in the Highlands, and then later in 1715/1725 after the act of union in 1707, became what was the first Highland Regiment in the British Army.[17] All Campbell tartans are based upon the Black Watch tartan, as are many clan tartans. The tartan was used, and is in current use, by several military units throughout the Commonwealth.[17] Campbell of Breadalbane:[20] This tartan may be worn by Campbells of the Breadalbane, or Glenorchy branches.[20] Campbell of Cawdor:[20] This tartan may be worn by members of the Campbell of Cawdor branch.[20] Campbell of Loudoun:[20] This tartan may be worn by members of the Campbell of Loudoun branch.[20] The Sixth Duke of Argyll added a white line to his tartan to distinguish himself as Clan Chief. He was the only member of the family to do so, but the tartan has persisted as "Campbell of Argyll". Campbell of Argyll, as with any other tartan not listed above, is not recognized as official.[21] Chief The most high, potent and noble prince his Grace Torquhil Ian Campbell, 13th Duke of Argyll, Marquess of Kintyre and Lorne, Earl of Argyll, Campbell and Cowal, Viscount Lochawe and Glenyla, Lord Campbell, Lorne, Kintyre, Inveraray, Mull, Morven and Tyrie in the peerage of Scotland, Baron Sundbridge of Coombank and Baron Hamilton of Hameldon in the peerage of Great Britain, 6th Duke of Argyll in the peerage of the United Kingdom, Baronet of Nova Scotia, Hereditary Master of the Royal Household in Scotland, Hereditary Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland, Hereditary Keeper of the royal castles of Dunoon, Carrick Castle, Dunstaffnage Castle and Tarbet, Admiral of the Western coasts and isles, and Chief of the Honorable Clan Campbell; The chief's Gaelic title is MacCailein Mor ('Son of Colin the Great'). The Chief is also the hereditary High Sheriff of Argyllshire, Member Queen's Body Guard for Scotland and Member Royal Company of Archers.[22]
16 days ago
Rita
Timeline Photos
TRAFFIC NOTICE FROM FT STEWART: Fort Stewart will
16 days ago
Lori
Fort Stewart's 1st Brigade soldiers head to Army's National Training Center in California
savannahnow.com
With his rifle resting on top of the rucksack next to him, Army Pfc. Scott Cassity sat up against a wall inside Hunter Army Airfield's Truscott Air Terminal flipping through messages and photos on his iPhone.
16 days ago
Mike Putting together a Brigade level mandatory fun day... Need some ideas that make mandatory fun worth going to and can be done at Fort Stewart. 3, 2, 1, GO!
16 days ago
Tabitha
Timeline Photos
TRAFFIC NOTICE FROM FT STEWART: Fort Stewart will
16 days ago
Alicia Nala is a puppy at the Fort Stewart stray facility and needs to be adopted by 3:00 tomorrow or she will be euthanized. If you know someone looking for a pet, please share this post.
Timeline Photos
Ft Stewart/Hinesville, GA~~~~ Nala NEEDS OUT !!!!
16 days ago
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